Yes, I'd say you could. My understanding about green cards is that they are easier to get for people who have credentials such as a bachelor's degree. For a teaching position per se, the question would be about the education courses you took in Norway. If they are not comparable enough with ours (and that depends upon the state), you may have to be willing to take additional courses. For example, some states require a course in American history for all teachers. From my own readings, Norway is reputed to have among the best elementary and secondary schools in the world. This should help you - play on that!
On the other hand, private (non-gov't) schools here can hire you without having had any education courses. They also might appreciate your international background more. Good luck!