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Characteristics of Gifted Children (page 2)

— Duke University Talent Identification Program
Updated on Dec 16, 2008

Leadership Abbility

  • Have an evaluative approach towards self and others ( Clark, 2002).
  • Heightened expectations of self and others; perfectionistic; is self critical (Clark, 2002; Silverman, 1997-2004, Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, Hartman, & Westberg, 2002 ; Adderholdt-Elliott, 1987; J. Gallagher, 1990; Kerr, 1991; Robinson & Noble, 1991; Whitmore, 1980 ).
  • Advanced cognitive and affective capacity for conceptualizing societal problems ( Clark, 2002).
  • Are self-confident with children their own age as well as with adults ( Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, Hartman, & Westberg, 2002 ).
  • Responsible; can be counted on ( Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, Hartman, & Westberg, 2002 ).
  • Is cooperative with teacher and classmates ( Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, Hartman, & Westberg, 2002 ).
  • Tends to dominate others; directs activities ( Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, Hartman, & Westberg, 2002 ).
  • Often has solutions to social and environmental problems ( Clark, 2002).
  • Tends to question authority; is uninhibited in giving opinions (Silverman 1997-2004; Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, Hartman, & Westberg, 2002 ; Hollingworth, 1940; Meckstroth, 1991; Whitmore, 1979).

Affective/Social-Emotional Characteristics

  • Large accumulation of emotions that has not be brought to awareness ( Clark, 2002).
  • Unusual sensitivity to the feelings and expectations of others; sensitive (Clark, 2002; Silverman, 1997-2004).
  • Heightened self-awareness ( Clark, 2002).
  • Advanced sense of justice – idealism at an early age; concerned with justice, fairness (Clark, 2002; Roeper, 1988; Rogers, 1986; Silverman & Ellsworth, 1980 ).
  • Earlier development of internal locus of control ( Clark, 2002).
  • Unusual emotional depth and intensity; shows compassion; sensitivity (Clark, 2002; Silverman, 1997-2004; Piechowski, 1979, 1991; Webb, Meckstroth, & Tolan, 1982; Torrance, 1977; Dabrowski, 1972; S. Gallagher, 1985; Piechowski & Colangelo, 1984; Whitmore, 1980 ).
  • Strong need for consistency between values and personal actions ( Clark, 2002).
  • Advanced levels of moral judgment; morally sensitive (Clark, 2002; Silverman, 1997-2004; Gross, 1993; Hollingworth, 1942; Passow, 1988; Roeper, 1988; Silverman & Ellsworth, 1980; Terman, 1925 ).
  • Strongly motivated by self-actualization needs ( Clark, 2002).

Psychomotor Characteristics

  • Unusual quantity of input from environment through a heightened sense of awareness ( Clark, 2002).
  • Unusual discrepancy between physical and intellectual development ( Clark, 2002).
  • Has a high degree of energy (Clark, 2002; Feldhusen, 1986; Whitmore, 1980).                                                

References

  • Adderholdt-Elliott, M. (1987). Perfectionism: What's bad about being too good? Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Press.
  • Bloom, B. S. (1982). The role of gifts and markers in the development of talent. Exceptional Children, 48, 510-521.
  • Clark, B. (2002). Growing up gifted (5th ed.) Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
  • Dabrowski, K. (1972). Psychoneurosis is not an illness. London: Gryf.
  • Feldhusen, J. F. (1986). A conception of giftedness. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 112-127). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gallagher, J. J. (1966). Research summary on gifted child education. Springfield, IL: Office of the Illinois Superintendent of Public Instruction.
  • Gallagher, J. J. (1990). Editorial: The public and professional perception of the emotional status of gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13, 202-211.
  • Gallagher, S. A. (1985). A comparison of the concept of overexcitabilities with measures of creativity and school achievement in sixth grade students. Roeper Review, 8, 115-119.
  • Gross, M. U. M. (1993). Exceptionally gifted children. London: Routledge.
  • Hollingworth, L. S. (1926). Gifted children: Their nature and nurture. New York: Macmillan.
  • Hollingworth, L. S. (1931). The child of very superior intelligence as a special problem in social adjustment. Mental Hygiene, 15(1), 1-16.
  • Hollingworth, L. S. (1942). Children above 180 IQ Stanford-Binet: Origin and development. Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book.
  • Kanevsky, L., Maker, C. J., Nielsen, A., & Rogers, K. B. (1994). Brilliant behaviors. In C. J. Maker & A. Nielsen. Principles and curriculum development for the gifted. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
  • Kerr, B. A. (1991). A handbook for counseling the gifted and talented. Alexandria, VA; American Association for Counseling and Development.
  • Lovecky, D. V. (1993). The quest for meaning: Counseling issues with gifted children and adolescents. In L. K. Silverman (Ed.), Counseling the gifted and talented (pp. 29-50). Denver: Love.
  • Meckstroth, E. (1991, December). Coping with sensitivities of gifted children. Paper presented at the Illinois Gifted Education Conference, Chicago, IL.
  • Passow, A. H. (1988). Educating gifted persons who are caring and concerned. Roeper Review, 11, 13-15.
  • Piechowski, M. M. (1979). Developmental potential. In N. Colangelo & R. T. Zaffrann (Eds.), New voices in counseling the gifted (pp. 25-57). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
  • Piechowski, M. M., & Colangelo, N. (1984). Developmental potential of the gifted. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28, 80-88.
  • Piechowski, M. M., Silverman, L. K., & Falk, R. F. (1985). Comparison of intellectually and artistically gifted on five dimensions of mental functioning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60, 539-549.
  • Renzulli, J. S., Smith, L. H., White, A. J., Callahan, C. M., Hartman, R. K., & Westberg, K. L. (2002). Scales for rating the behavioral characteristics of superior students (Rev. ed.). Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press.
  • Robinson, N. M., & Noble, K. D. (1991). Social-emotional development and adjustment of gifted children. In M. C. Wang, M. C. Reynolds, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.). Handbook of special education: Research and practice, Volume 4: Emerging programs (pp. 57-76). New York: Pergamon Press.
  • Robinson, H. B., Roedell, W. C., & Jackson, N. E. (1979). Early identification and intervention. In A. H. Passow (Ed.), The gifted and talented: Their education and development (pp. 138-154). The 78th yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Roeper, A. (1988). Should educators of the gifted and talented be more concerned with world issues? Roeper Review, 11, 12-13.
  • Rogers, M. T. (1986). A comparative study of developmental traits of gifted and average children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, Denver, CO.
  • Silverman, L.K. ( 1997-2004). Characteristics of giftedness scale: A review of the literature. Retrieved April 25, 2005 from www.gifteddevelopment.com/Articles/Characteristics_Scale.htm
  • Silverman, L. K., & Ellsworth, B. (1980). The theory of positive disintegration and its implications for giftedness. In N. Duda (Ed.), Theory of positive disintegration: Proceedings of the third international conference (pp. 179-194). Miami, FL: University of Miami School of Medicine.
  • Smutney, J. F. (Ed.) (1998). The young gifted child: Potential and promise, an anthology. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
  • Sternberg, R. J. (1986). A triarchic theory of intellectual giftedness. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 223-243). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Terman, L. M. (1925). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. 1. Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Terman, L. M., & Oden, M. H. (1947). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. 4. The gifted child grows up. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Terman, L. M., & Oden, M. H. (1951). The Stanford studies of the gifted. In P. Witty (Ed.), The gifted child (pp. 20-46). Boston: D. C. Heath.
  • Terman, L. M., & Oden, M. H. (1959). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. 5. The gifted group at mid-life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Torrance , E. P. (1977). Discovery and nurturance of giftedness in the culturally different. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Webb, J. T., Meckstroth, E. A., & Tolan, S. S. (1982). Guiding the gifted child: A practical source for parents and teachers. Columbus, OH: Ohio Psychology.
  • Whitmore, J. R. (1979). Discipline and the gifted child. Roeper Review, 2(2), 42-46.
  • Whitmore, J. R. (1980). Giftedness, conflict, and underachievement. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Witty, P. A. (1958). Who are the gifted? In N. B. Henry (Ed.), Education for the gifted, (pp. 42-63). The fifty-seventh yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
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