- To develop a sense of accomplishment, which centers around the ability to learn and apply skills, deal with peers, competition, self-control, and greater physical strength.
- To develop and test values and beliefs, which guide present and future behaviors.
Indicators Related to Developmental Lag
- Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent lack of concern with completion of tasks (procrastination); overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with "older" people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; fire-setting.
Note: Although these tasks and indicators may be present during ages 7 to 12, each may be more observable at specific times.
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: Nine to Ten Years
Normal Characteristics Suggested Behaviors for Effective Parenting Engages in active, rough-and-tumble play (especially boys); has great interest in team games. Provide many opportunities to sustain interest. Include team games. Has good body control; is interested in developing strength, skill, and speed; likes more complicated crafts and work-related tasks. Provide opportunities for developing skills through the use of handicrafts and active games. Girls are beginning to develop faster than boys. Do not compare boys and girls or force them to interact. Start teaching about bodily changes. Explain menstruation to both sexes.
Physical Development for Eight to Nine Years Physical Development for Ten to Eleven Years Return to Using the Child Development Guide
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT: Nine to Ten Years
Normal Characteristics Suggested Behaviors for Effective Parenting Has definite interests and lively curiosity; seeks facts; capable of prolonged interest; can do more abstract thinking and reasoning. Give specific information and facts.
Adjust learning opportunities to child's interests and increased attention span. Do not give all the answers; allow time to think, meditate, and discuss.
Individual differences become more marked. Respect and be aware of individual differences when making assignments and giving responsibilities. Likes reading, writing, and using books and references. Provide opportunities for reading, writing, and using reference materials; do not burden the child, however. Likes to collect things. Help with hobbies.
Intellectual Development for Eight to Nine Years Intellectual Development for Ten to Eleven Years Return to Using the Child Development Guide
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Nine to Ten Years
Normal Characteristics Suggested Behaviors for Effective Parenting Boys and girls differ in personalities, characteristics, and interests; are very group and club oriented but always with same sex; sometimes silly within group. Accept natural separation of boys and girls. Recognize and support the need for acceptance from peer group. Boys, especially, begin to test and exercise a great deal of independence. Be warm but firm. Establish and enforce reasonable limits. Is most interested in friends and social activities; likes group adventures and cooperative play. Encourage friendships and help child who may have few or no friends.
Social Development for Eight to Nine Years Social Development for Ten to Eleven Years Return to Using the Child Development Guide
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Nine to Ten Years
Normal Characteristics Suggested Behaviors for Effective Parenting May have some behavior problems, especially if not accepted by others. Let the child know you accept him/her, even though you do not approve of specific behaviors. Is becoming very independent, dependable, and trustworthy. Provide many opportunities for exercising independence and dependability. Praise these positive characteristics.
Emotional Development for Eight to Nine Years Emotional Development for Ten to Eleven Years Return to Using the Child Development Guide
MORAL DEVELOPMENT: Nine to Ten Years
Normal Characteristics Suggested Behaviors for Effective Parenting Is very conscious of fairness; is highly competitive; argues over fairness; has difficulty admitting mistakes but is becoming more capable of accepting failures and mistakes and taking responsibility for them. Be fair in dealings and relationships with child. Provide opportunities for competing, but help child see that losing is a part of playing. Do not ridicule, but help child learn to take responsibility for behavior. Is clearly acquiring a conscience; is aware of right and wrong; wants to do right, but sometimes overreacts or rebels against a strict conscience. Express your love and support for the child who falls short of meeting your personal standards of right and wrong.
Moral Development for Eight to Nine Years Moral Development for Ten to Eleven Years Return to Using the Child Development Guide
Reprinted with the permission of the Department of Social and Health Services.Next Article: The Challenges of Middle Childhood