Coarctation of the Aorta
What Is Coarctation?
The aorta is the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body. When someone has coarctation of the aorta, the aorta is narrowed at some point.
Here's how a healthy heart and aorta work: Blood that needs oxygen comes from all over the body and enters the right side of the heart, which pumps it to the lungs. The lungs fill the blood with oxygen, and this oxygen-rich blood returns from the lungs to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart finishes up by pumping the blood out through the aorta. From the aorta, the blood travels through arteries that reach all of the body's organs and tissues, bringing them oxygen. Then the blood returns to the heart through veins and begins the cycle once again.
When part of the aorta is narrowed (this is a coarctation), that defect can affect the body's blood circulation because the left side of the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed aorta.
Sometimes the narrowing is minor and might not even cause symptoms. In other cases, the aorta is more constricted, placing a strain on the heart's left ventricle (the chamber that pumps blood to the aorta and out to the body).
A coarctation can occur anywhere in the aorta, but most often is found after the point where the arteries that carry blood to the upper body and head branch off from the aorta.
Coarctation of the aorta (or COA) is a congenital defect, meaning that someone is born with it. About 1 in 100 children is born with a heart problem, and coarctation represents about 8% of those cases. Doctors don't know for sure why certain people are born with this narrowing of the aorta.
Coarctation occurs more commonly in boys, but is often seen in girls with Turner syndrome, in which one of two X chromosomes is incomplete or missing. COA may occur with other birth defects or congenital heart conditions, such as a ventricular septal defect (a hole in the wall between the heart's left and right ventricles).
Coarctation also can be associated with other structures abnormalities of the left side of the heart. A common association is a bicuspid aortic valve, in which the aortic valve between the left ventricle and aorta has two leaflets instead of the normal three.
Most people with COA are diagnosed as babies or young children, although some aren't diagnosed until they're teens or even adults. Usually, in this case, the narrowing in the aorta is not severe enough to cause serious symptoms while the person is very young. But even those who do not have major symptoms usually need to be treated because the coarctation can eventually cause problems. COA will not go away on its own.
Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
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