Media Literacy (page 3)

— The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
Updated on Feb 18, 2011


1 Patricia Aufderheide, National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy, Conference Report (Washington, DC: Aspen Institute, 1993).

2 Although the exact wording may vary, the basic media literacy core concepts are similarly defi ned and applied by media educators. See, for example, Elizabeth Thoman, "Skills and Strategies for Media Education," Center for Media Literacy,

3 Kathleen Tyner, Literacy in a Digital World (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998). The United States lags behind other countries such as Canada, England, and Australia which have a centralized education ministry that disseminates media education resources and training.

4 See, for example, Senator Joseph Lieberman, Prepared Statement, Media Research Forum, April 9, 2003, (30 September 2003); Richard Riley, U.S. Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education, ÃíMedia Literacy for AmericaÃïs Young People,Ãì December 13, 1995, (30 September 2003).

5 See, for example, The National Communication Association, The Speaking, Listening and Media Literacy Standards and Competency Statements for K-12 Education, (31 July 2003).

6 Robert Kubey and Frank Baker, ÒHas Media Literacy Found a Curricular Foothold?Ó Education Week (October 27, 1999), (31 July 2003). A state-by-state listing is available at (31 July 2003).

7 The survey indicated that media literacy is offered more in the fi eld of communication than in education. Art Silverblatt et al., ÒMedia Literacy in U.S. Institutions of Higher Education,Ó July 25, 2002 (updated May 18, 2003), (20 June 2003).

8 James Brown, ÒMedia Literacy and Critical Television Viewing in Education,Ó Handbook of Children and the Media, eds. D. Singer and J. Singer (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001), 681-698.

9 Marjorie Heins and Christina Cho, Media Literacy: An Alternative to Censorship, (31 July 2003).

10 For a discussion of the status of media literacy education in the United States, see the symposium issue of Journal of Communication (Winter 1998); in particular, Renee Hobbs, ÒThe Seven Great Debates in the Media Literacy MovementÓ (pp. 16-32), and Robert Kubey, ÒObstacles to the Development of Media Education in the United StatesÓ (pp. 58-69).


12 For example, Listen Up! Youth Media Network helps connect youth media makers and National Alliance of Media Arts and Culture (NAMAC) supports independent media and advocates for media literacy education . NAMAC is currently documenting the sustainability of youth media programs in the U.S. See, Kathleen Tyner, ÒMapping the Field: Knowledge Network Focuses on Youth Media,Ó (10 September 2003).

13 Cable in the Classroom, Thinking Critically about Media: Schools and Families in Partnership (Alexandria, VA: Cable in the Classroom, 2002), (31 July 2003).

14 See, for example, Marjorie Hogan, ÒParents and Other Adults: Models and Monitors of Healthy Media Habits,Ó Handbook of Children and the Media, eds. D. Singer and J. Singer (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001), 663-679; Victor Strasburger and Barbara Wilson, ÒTen Arguments in Favor of Solutions,Ó Children, Adolescents & the Media (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 368-421.

15 National PTA, Cable in the Classroom, National Cable & Telecommunications Association, Taking Charge of Your TV: A Guide to Critical Viewing for Parents and Children, (31 July 2003).

16 For example, Center for Media Literacy , New Mexico Media Literacy Project (NMMLP) , and National Institute on Media and the Family (NIMF) offer training, workshops, and resources.

17 In 1997, the AAP instituted the Media Matters Campaign to educate its members and provide clinical tools to assess and mitigate media effects on children and adolescents. See American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education, ÒMedia Education,Ó Pediatrics 104 (August 1999)2:341-343; Understanding the Impact of Media on Children and Teens, ; Media Education in the Practice Setting: An Overview of Media and the PediatricianÕs Role, (31 July 2003).

18 Thomas Robinson et al., ÒEffects of Reducing ChildrenÕs Television and Video Game Use on Aggressive Behavior,Ó Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine 155(2001)1:17-23.

19 Lawrence Rosenkoetter et al., ÒMitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television,Ó Unpublished report, Oregon State University (August 2002).

20 Jane Moore, Neal DeChillo, Barbara Nicholson, Angela Genovese, and Stephanie Sladen, ÒFlashpoint: An Innovative Media Literacy Intervention for High-Risk Adolescents,Ó Juvenile and Family Court Journal (Spring Juvenile and Family Court Journal (Spring Juvenile and Family Court Journal 2000):23-33; Ruth Budelmann, ÒSubstance and Flash: Media Literacy Meets Juvenile Justice,Ó Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 48(Fall 2002)2:41-42. The National Crime Prevention Council and the Bureau of Justice Assistance selected this program as one of the countryÕs most innovative and effective prevention programs for high-risk youth.

21 Joe Behson, ÒMedia Literacy for High-Risk Children and Youth,Ó Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 48(Fall 2002)2:38-40. Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 48(Fall 2002)2:38-40. Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy

22 Nirva Piran, Michael Levine, and Lori Irving, ÒGO GIRLS! Media Literacy, Activism, and Advocacy Project,Ó Healthy Weight Journal (November/December 2000):89-90. Similar programs such as Free to be Me developed for the Girl Scouts and Full of Ourselves developed by Harvard Eating Disorders Center also use media literacy as a prevention strategy for disordered eating. See, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer et al., ÒPrimary Prevention of Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Girls: Feasibility and Short-term Effect of a Community-based Intervention,Ó Journal of the American Dietetic Association (December 2000), (31 July 2003); Sally Anne Giedrys, ÒCreating a Curriculum to Help Girls Battle Eating Disorders,Ó Harvard Gazette Archive (February 11, 1999), (6 August 2003).

23 Lori Irving, Julie DuPen, and Susan Berel, ÒA Media Literacy Program for High School Females,Ó Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention 6(1998):119-131; Lori Irving and Susan Berel, ÒComparison of Media-Literacy Programs to Strengthen College WomenÕs Resistance to Media Images,Ó Psychology of Women Quarterly 25(2001):103-111. Psychology of Women Quarterly 25(2001):103-111. Psychology of Women Quarterly

24 Linn Goldberg, David MacKinnon, Diane Elliot, Esther Moe, Greg Clarke, and JeeWon Cheong, ÒThe Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids Program,Ó Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 54(April 2000):332-338.

25 A basic media literacy skill is learning to question media messages. This version is based on Center for Media Literacy, .

26 Erica Austin and Kristine Johnson, ÒEffects of General and Alcohol- Specifi c Media Literacy Training on ChildrenÕs Decision Making about Alcohol,Ó Journal of Health Communication 2(1997):17-42.

27 Bruce Pinkleton, Erica Austin, Marilyn Cohen, and Autumn Miller, ÒMedia Literacy and Smoking Prevention Among Adolescents: A Year- Two Evaluation of the American Legacy Foundation/Washington State Department of Health Anti-Tobacco Campaign,Ó Paper presented at the International Communication Association, Health Communication Division, San Diego, California, May 2003.

28 Richard Beltramini and Patrick Bridge, ÒRelationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School- based, Antismoking Intervention Program,Ó Journal of Consumer Affairs 35(Winter 2001)2:263-27; Bob McCannon, ÒMedia Literacy: What? Why? How?Ó Children, Adolescents & the Media, eds. Victor Strasburger and Barbara Wilson (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002), 322-367.

29 Media Literacy for Drug Prevention was developed by The New York Times Newspaper in Education Fund and sponsored by the White House Offi ce of National Drug Control Policy. MediaSharp: Analyzing Tobacco and Alcohol Messages was published by The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; The Offi ce on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; American Academy of Pediatrics; and National Education Association Health Information Network.

30 The New York Times Newspaper in Education Program, Media Literacy for Drug Prevention Teacher Survey Report (August 2002). Literacy for Drug Prevention Teacher Survey Report (August 2002). Literacy for Drug Prevention Teacher Survey Report

31 Renee Hobbs and Richard Frost, ÒMeasuring the Acquisition of Media Literacy Skills,Ó Reading Research Quarterly (Spring 2003), (31 July 2003).

32 Renee Hobbs and Richard Frost, ÒInstructional Practices in Media Literacy and Their Impact on StudentsÕ Learning,Ó New Jersey Journal of Communication 6(1999)2:123-148, (31 July 2003). Additional copies of this publication (#3383) are available on the Kaiser Family FoundationÕs website at

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