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Parental Involvement in Learning: Statistics (page 2)

— National Institute for Literacy
Updated on Jul 26, 2007

Outcomes of Parent Involvement

The National Household Education Survey found the following for 3-5 year olds not yet enrolled in kindergarten in 1999:

Of the children who were read to fewer than 3 times in the past week by a family member:

  • 24% had 3-4 of the following skills: recognizes all letters, counts to 20 or higher, writes name, and reads or pretends to read storybooks, compared to 42% who were read to more than 3 times in the past week,
  • 57% could read or pretend to read storybooks, compared to 77% of 3-5 year olds who were read to more than 3 times in the past week, and
  • 14% recognize all the letters, compared to 26% who were read to more than 3 times in the past week.

Of the children who were told a story fewer than 3 times in the past week by a family member:

  • 34% had 3-4 of the following skills: recognizes all letters, counts to 20 or higher, writes name, and reads or pretends to read storybooks, compared to 44% who were told a story more than 3 times in the past week,
  • 20% could recognize all the letters, compared to 28% who were told a story more than 3 times in the past week, and
  • 68% could read or pretend to read storybooks, compared to 79% who were told a story more than 3 times in the past week.

Of the children who were taught letters, words, and numbers by a family member fewer than 3 times in the past week:

  • 31% had 3-4 of the following skills: recognizes all letters, counts to 20 or higher, writes name, and reads or pretends to read storybooks, compared to 43% who were taught letters, words, and numbers more than 3 times in the past week,
  • 69% could read or pretend to read storybooks, compared to 76% of 3-5 year olds who were taught letters, words, and numbers more than 3 times in the past week, and
  • 17% could recognize all the letters, compared to 27% who were taught letters, words, and numbers more than 3 times in the past week.

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study found that of the children who were read to at least three times a week as they entered kindergarten:

  • 76% had mastered the letter-sound relationship at the beginning of words, compared to 64% of children who were read to fewer than 3 times a week,
  • 57% had mastered the letter-sound relationship at the end of words, compared to 43% who were read to fewer than 3 times a week,
  • 15% had sight-word recognition skills, compared to 8% who were read to fewer than 3 times a week, and
  • 5% could understand words in context, compared to 2% who were read to fewer than 3 times a week.
  • It also found that in spring 2000, the children who were read to at least three times a week by a family member were almost twice as likely to score in the top 25% in reading than children who were read to less than 3 times a week. 

The NAEP 2000 national reading assessment of fourth-grade students found the following:

  • Higher than average scores among students who reported more types of reading material at home. The 68% of students who had three or more different types of reading materials at home performed at the Proficient level, while students who had two or fewer types of reading material at home performed at the Basic level. Students who had 4 types of reading material at home performed the highest.
  • Students who discussed their studies at home, however frequently, had higher average reading scores than students who reported never discussing their studies at home. The 83% of students who discussed their studies once a month or more at home performed at the Proficient level, compared to students who never or hardly ever discussed their studies at home and performed at the Basic level.
  • Students who talked about reading with family and friends, however frequently, had higher average scores than students who never or hardly ever talked about reading. Students who talked about reading once or twice a week performed the highest.

The Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance in Title I Schools found that when third grade teachers were especially active in outreach to low achievers' parents, students made faster gains in reading over the next 2 years, gaining 4.6 points more than students whose teachers made only an average amount of outreach. 

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