Education.com
Try
Brainzy
Try
Plus

Recess in Elementary School (page 3)

By — Educational Resource Information Center (U.S. Department of Education)
Updated on Jul 26, 2007

Conclusion

The available research suggests that recess can play an important role in the learning, social development, and health of elementary school children. While there are arguments against recess, no research clearly supports not having recess. However, more research is needed to determine the current percentage of schools that have abolished recess and assess the effect of no- recess policies on student test scores, attitudes, and behaviors. Further experimental research could help clarify how often recess breaks should occur, whether indoor recess can substitute for outdoor recess, and how much involvement/guidance is needed by adult supervisors. 

For More Information

Bishop, J. C., & Curtis, M. (Eds.). (2001). PLAY TODAY IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL PLAYGROUND. Philadelphia: Open University Press. 

Calo, K., & Ingram, P. (1994). PLAYGROUND LEADERS. Auburn, ME: Maine Center for Educational Services. ED 376 984. 

Council for Physical Education and Children. (2001). RECESS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. A POSITION PAPER FROM THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION [Online]. Available: http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/pdf_files/pos_papers/current_res.pdf. 

Dale, D., Corbin, C. B., & Dale, K. S. (2000). Restricting opportunities to be active during school time: Do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school? RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT, 71(3), 240-248. 

Etnier, J. L., Salazar, W., Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., Han, M., & Nowell, P. (1997). The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. JOURNAL OF SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY, 19(3), 249-277. 

Evans, K. C., & Eversole, D. (1992). Children as conflict managers. JOURNAL OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS, 1(2), 39-40. EJ 480 826. 

Gallegos, K. (1998). Inclusion, responsibility, and fair play can also be learned outside the classroom. THRUST OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP, 28(1), 13. EJ 573 429. 

Hartle, L., Campbell, J., Becker, A., Harman, S., Kagel, S., & Tiballi, B. (1994). Outdoor play: A window on social-cognitive development. DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD, 23(1), 27-31. EJ 499 977. 

Hartup, W. W., & Laursen, B. (1993). Conflict and context in peer relations. In C. H. Hart (Ed.), CHILDREN ON PLAYGROUNDS: RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES AND APPLICATIONS (pp. 44-84). Albany: State University of New York Press. 

Jarrett, O. S., Farokhi, B., Young, C., & Davies, G. (2001). Boys and girls at play: Games and recess at a southern urban elementary school. In S. Reifel (Ed.), PLAY AND CULTURE STUDIES, VOL. 3: THEORY IN CONTEXT AND OUT (pp. 147-170). Westport, CT: Ablex. 

Jarrett, O. S., & Maxwell, D. M. (2000). What research says about the need for recess. In R. Clements (Ed.), ELEMENTARY SCHOOL RECESS: SELECTED READINGS, GAMES, AND ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHERS AND PARENTS (pp. 12-23). Lake Charles, LA: American Press. 

Jarrett, O. S., Maxwell, D. M., Dickerson, C., Hoge, P., Davies, G., & Yetley, A. (1998). The impact of recess on classroom behavior: Group effects and individual differences. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 92(2), 121-126. 

Jensen, E. (1998). TEACHING WITH THE BRAIN IN MIND. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. ED 434 950. 

Kraft, R. E. (1989). Children at play: Behavior of children at recess. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, RECREATION, AND DANCE, 60(4), 21-24. EJ 397 284. 

Martens, F. L. (1982). Daily physical education--a boon to Canadian elementary schools. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, RECREATION, AND DANCE, 53(3), 55-58. 

National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education. (2002). RECESS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY: A POSITION STATEMENT ON YOUNG CHILDREN AND RECESS [Online]. Available: http://ericps.crc.uiuc.edu/naecs/position/recessplay.html. 

Nelson, J. R., Smith, D. J., & Colvin, G. (1995). The effects of a peer-mediated self-evaluation procedure on the recess behavior of students with behavior problems. REMEDIAL AND SPECIAL EDUCATION, 16(2), 117-126. EJ 499 269. 

Pellegrini, A. D. (1995). SCHOOL RECESS AND PLAYGROUND BEHAVIOR. Albany: State University of New York. ED 379 095. 

Pellegrini, A. D., & Davis, P. L. (1993). Relations between children's playground and classroom behaviour. BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, 63(1), 88-95. 

Pellegrini, A. D., Huberty, P. D., & Jones, I. (1995). The effects of recess timing on children's playground and classroom behaviors. AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL, 32(4), 845-864. EJ 520 960. 

Pellegrini, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (1993). School recess: Implications for education and development. Review of EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 63(1), 51-67. EJ 463 378. 

Pellegrini, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (1998). Physical activity play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of play. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 69(3), 577-598. EJ 569 149. 

Toppino, T. C., Kasserman, J. E., & Mracek, W. A. (1991). The effect of spacing repetitions on the recognition memory of young children and adults. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, 51(1), 123-138. EJ 429 022. 

Waite-Stupiansky, S., & Findlay, M. (2001). The fourth R: Recess and its link to learning. EDUCATIONAL FORUM, 66(1), 16-24. 

View Full Article
Add your own comment

Washington Virtual Academies

Tuition-free online school for Washington students.

SPONSORED