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The Role of Styles and Strategies in Second Language Learning (page 2)

— U.S. Department of Education
Updated on Jul 26, 2007

What are learning strategies?

Language learning strategies are the often-conscious steps or behaviors used by language learners to enhance the acquisition, storage, retention, recall, and use of new information (Rigney, 1978; Oxford, 1990). Strategies can be assessed in a variety of ways, such as diaries, think-aloud procedures, observations, and surveys. Research both outside the language field (e.g., Brown, Bransford, Ferrara, & Campione, 1983) and investigations with language learners (see reviews by Skehan, 1989; Oxford 1989; Oxford & Crookall, 1989) frequently show that the most successful learners tend to use learning strategies that are appropriate to the material, to the task, and to their own goals, needs, and stage of learning. More proficient learners appear to use a wider range of strategies in a greater number of situations than do less proficient learners, but the relationship between strategy use and proficiency is complex. Research indicates that language learners at all levels use strategies (Chamot & Kupper, 1989), but that some or most learners are not fully aware of the strategies they use or the strategies that might be most beneficial to employ.

Many different strategies can be used by language learners: metacognitive techniques for organizing, focusing, and evaluating one's own learning; affective strategies for handling emotions or attitudes; social strategies for cooperating with others in the learning process; cognitive strategies for linking new information with existing schemata and for analyzing and classifying it; memory strategies for entering new information into memory storage and for retrieving it when needed; and compensation strategies (such as guessing or using gestures) to overcome deficiencies and gaps in one's current language knowledge (see Oxford, 1990).

Language learning strategy research has suffered from an overemphasis on metacognitive and cognitive strategies, which are admittedly very important, at the expense of other strategy types that are also very useful.

Some preliminary research suggests the existence of sex differences in strategy use (see review by Oxford, Nyikos, & Ehrman, 1988). Choice of language strategies also relates strongly to ethnicity, language learning purpose, the nature of the task, and other factors (see Politzer, 1983; Politzer & McGroarty, 1985; Oxford, 1989). As noted earlier, one of these related factors is, no doubt, learning style.

Important effects of training in the use of language learning strategies have been discovered by a number of researchers (see Atkinson, 1985; Bejarano, 1987; Chamot & Kupper, 1989; Cohen & Hosenfeld, 1981; Oxford, Crookall, Lavine, Cohen, Nyikos & Sutter, forthcoming). It is clear that students can be taught to use better strategies, and research suggests that better strategies improve language performance. Just how language learning strategies should be taught is open to question, but so far it has been confirmed that strategy training is generally more effective when woven into regular classroom activities than when presented as a separate strategy course.

Language learning styles and strategies appear to be among the most important variables influencing performance in a second language. Much more investigation is necessary to determine the precise role of styles and strategies, but even at this stage in our understanding we can state that teachers need to become more aware of both learning styles and learning strategies through appropriate teacher training. Teachers can help their students by designing instruction that meets the needs of individuals with different stylistic preferences and by teaching students how to improve their learning strategies.

References

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Bejarano, Y. (1987). A cooperative small-group methodology in the language classroom. "TESOL Quarterly," 2, pp483-504.

Brown, A.L., Bransford, J.D., Ferrara, R. & Campione, J.C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In J.N. Flavell & E. M. Markham (Eds.), "Carmichael's manual of child psychology, v1." New York, NY: Wiley.

Chamot, A.U. & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. "Foreign Language Annals," 22, pp13-24.

Chapelle, C. & Roberts, C. (1986). Ambiguity tolerance and field independence as predictors in English as a second language. "Language Learning," 36(1) pp27-45.

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Ehrman, M. & Oxford, R. (1989). Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adults' language learning strategies. "Modern Language Journal," 73, pp1-13.

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Oxford, R. (1989). The use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. "System," 12(2), pp235-47.

Oxford, R. (1990). "Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know." New York: Newbury House/ Harper & Row.

Oxford, R., Crookall, D., Lavine, R., Cohen, A., Nyikos, M., & Sutter, W. (forthcoming). "Strategy training for language learners: Six situational case studies and a training model."

Oxford, R. & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on six situational language learning strategies: Methods, findings, and instructional issues. "Modern Language Journal," 73(4).

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Parry, T.S. (1984). "The relationship of selected dimensions of learner cognitive style, aptitude, and general intelligence factors to selected foreign language proficiency tasks of second-year students of Spanish at the secondary level." Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

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Politzer, R. & McGroarty, M. (1985). An exploratory study of learning behaviors and their relationships to gains in linguistic and communicative competence. "TESOL Quarterly," 19, pp103-24.

Reid, J.M. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. "TESOL Quarterly," 21, pp87-111.

Rigney, J. W. (1978). Learning strategies: A theoretical perspective. In H.F. O'Neil, Jr. (Ed.), "Learning strategies," pp164-205. New York: Academic Press.

Sharan, S., Kussell, R., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Bejarano, Y., Raviv, S., & Sharan, Y. (1985). Cooperative learning effects on the ethnic relations and achievement in Israeli junior high school classrooms. In R. Slavin et al. (Eds.), "Learning to cooperate, cooperating to learn." pp314-44. New York: Plenum.

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Skehan, P. (1989). "Individual differences in second language learning." London: Edward Arnold.

Willing, K. (1988). "Learning styles in adult migrant education." Adelaide, South Australia: National Curriculum Research Council.

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