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# Child Development Tracker: Mathematics From Age 4 to 5 (page 4)

PBS Parents
Updated on Jul 9, 2010

### Measurement

• During the first half of this year, some four-year-olds will still be discovering attributes of objects by filling a container with solids or liquids (e.g., ice cubes or water). These children will also figure out that different sized containers will hold more or less.
• During the first part of this year, the average child will recognize, informally discuss, and develop language to describe attributes such as "big" or "small" (height/area/volume), "long" and "tall" or "short" (length/height), "heavy" or "light" (weight), and "fast" or "slow" (speed).
• Throughout this year, some children will still be learning the concepts of "same" and "different," as well as how to describe the ways in which items are the same or different. Also during the first half of this year, some children compare a single attribute of several objects (e.g., The child says, "She has a bigger piece of cake than I do."). The average child makes such comparisons during the second half of this year. During the first half of this year, some children can order objects from smallest to largest (e.g., lines up from shortest to tallest, nests cups, etc.) and describe relationships among objects (e.g., "big," "bigger," "biggest"). The average child develops these skills during the second half of this year.
• Throughout the year, some children may still be developing their sense of time through their participation in daily activities (e.g., knows the basic sequence of the day). By the end of this year, children should understand daily time concepts like "morning," "afternoon," "night," "earlier," "later," and "soon." Children should also be able to identify basic concepts associated with night/day and seasons, but may still confuse "yesterday," "today," and "tomorrow." During the first half of this year, some children can recite the days of the week and seasons, but cannot tell time. Some children this age also recognize that a specific time is associated with certain events (e.g., favorite TV show comes on at 4:00). The average child understands these things during the second half of this year. Finally, during the second half of this year, some children will have developed a strong sense of time and will know when events close to them take place. They will know the days of the week, the months, and the seasons, but will still be learning how to tell time.
• During the first half of this year, some children may solve a problem by comparing lengths directly (e.g. placing two sticks side by side to see which is longer). The average child does this during the second half of this year.
• During the first half of this year, some children may compare the areas of two objects by placing one object on another. The average child does this during the second half of this year.
• Throughout this year, some four-year-olds will make informal comparisons and estimates (e.g., says, "I'm as tall as the yellow bookshelf.").