The completion of high school is the beginning of adult life. Entitlement to public education ends, and young people and their families are faced with many options and decisions about the future. The most common choices for the future are pursuing vocational training or further academic education, getting a job, and living independently.

For students with disabilities, these choices may be more complex and may require a great deal of planning. Planning the transition from school to adult life begins, at the latest, during high school. In fact, transition planning is required, by law, to start once a student reaches 14 years of age, or younger, if appropriate. This transition planning becomes formalized as part of the student's Individualized Education Program (IEP).

Transition services are intended to prepare students to make the transition from the world of school to the world of adulthood. In planning what type of transition services a student needs to prepare for adulthood, the IEP Team considers areas such as postsecondary education or vocational training, employment, independent living, and community participation. The transition services themselves are a coordinated set of activities that are based on the student's needs and that take into account his or her preferences and interests. Transition services can include instruction, community experiences, the development of employment and other post- school adult living objectives, and (if appropriate) the acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational assessment.

The student and his or her family are expected to take an active role in preparing the student to take responsibility for his or her own life once school is finished. Where once school provided a centralized source of education, guidance, transportation, and even recreation, after students leave school, they will need to organize their own lives and needs and navigate among an array of adult service providers and federal, state, and local programs. This can be a daunting task one for which the student and his or her family need to be prepared.

This Transition Summary provides ideas and information on how students, families, school personnel, service providers, and others can work together to help students make a smooth transition. In particular, this document focuses on creative transition planning and services that use all the resources that exist in communities, not just the agencies that have traditionally been involved. This publication also provides:

  • definitions of some terms used in transition planning,
  • lists of individuals and agencies that can help the IEP Team create a successful transition plan,
  • guides to finding the groups and agencies that provide transition services,
  • examples of creative transition plans, and
  • ways to improve the transition system by working at the community level.
Potential Consultants to the Transition Team

Potential Consultant: Relationship to Transition Services

  • Adult Education Representative: provides information about lifelong education options
  • Advocacy Organization(s) Representative: may offer self-advocacy training or support groups for young adults
  • Assistive Technology Representative: provides expertise on devices that can open doors to opportunities
  • At-Risk/Prevention Specialist: offers counseling and support on teen pregnancy, alcohol, and drugs
  • Business-Education Partnership Representative: provides links between schools and local businesses and industry
  • Community Action Agency Representative: may link team to resources for traditionally underrepresented groups
  • Correctional Education Staff: provides incarcerated youth with continued learning opportunities
  • Drop-Out Prevention Representative: provides youth with alternative to dropping out of school
  • Employer: offers insight into expectations; promotes hiring of people with disabilities
  • Employment Specialist: provides job development, placement, coaching
  • Extension Service Agent: offers programs in parenting, homemaking, independent living
  • Guidance Counselor: provides information on curriculum, assessment, graduation requirements, college
  • Health Department/School Nurse: provides guidance on community health services and health care advice
  • Higher Education Representative: provides information on postsecondary services to students with disabilities
  • Housing Agency Representative: assists in developing housing options
  • Leisure Program Representative: knows available program options within the community
  • Literacy Council Representative: coordinates volunteers to teach basic reading and writing skills
  • Local Government Representative: funds many local services; can provide information on local services
  • Local Disability Representative (e.g., UCP): provides information and training (often serves all disabilities, not just one)
  • Parent Training and Information Center Representative: provides training on transition planning and advocacy services to families
  • Religious Community Member: can provide social support to young adults and their families
  • Residential Service Provider: can help access specialized housing
  • Social Worker: provides guidance and arranges for case management, support, respite care
  • Special Olympics Representative: provides sports training, competition, and recreational opportunities for youth
  • Therapists: provide behavioral, physical, occupational, & speech services in the community
  • Transportation Representative: offers expertise about transportation options and training
  • United Way Representative: funds many community programs that may offer options for young adults
  • Very Special Arts Representative: provides information on art programs and opportunities for youth
  • Vocational Educator: provides job training; teachers work-related skills
  • YMCA/YWCA: offers recreation and leisure programs

Team members do not necessarily have to come from social service agencies. Students and their families may also invite a relative, friend, or advocate who can provide emotional support, access to their personal networks, or other unique expertise. If possible, it is also helpful to have team members from similar language and cultural backgrounds as the student. These members can help the team understand how cultural or language issues impact the transition process. Some typical transition outcomes, such as going away to college, getting a paying job, moving out of the family home, and making decisions independently of the family are valued differently by different cultures.

It is very important to invite service representatives and other individuals identified as transition consultants to IEP meetings that will be focused on only transition. They do not need to be at every IEP meeting of the student. If they cannot attend the meetings focusing on transition, talk to them about the IEP and bring their ideas or comments to the meeting.

Creating the Transition Plan

After the IEP Team identifies the student's preferences and interests and identifies the agencies and resources that may be helpful in planning the student's transition, it's time to sit down and figure out a way to make all the pieces fit together. This takes time, creativity, and patience, but the rewards are worth the effort. Remember that other people have done this before. Consult school professionals, disability groups, parent organizations, and other families for their suggestions.

Planning an effective transition can involve many different individuals and agencies. The three Student Stories below illustrate the types of collaboration involved in creative planning. They show plans for three different components that every transition plan should include plans for employment, plans for education and/or training after high school, and plans for living independently. Following these Student Stories are tables (Planning for Employment, Planning for Education After High School, and Planning for Living Independently), that show the steps that a transition team may need to take in order to meet the student's goals.

Marcia's Employment Path

Marcia, a 20-year-old student with mild cognitive disabilities and a mild hearing impairment, has a transition goal of full-time employment upon graduation this year. Marcia has a one-year-old child. Marcia's transition planning team includes her and her family, the vocational educator, special educator, vocational rehabilitation counselor, mental retardation case worker, hearing specialist, social worker, and occupational therapist.

Starting at age 17, Marcia had begun exploring job opportunities through job shadowing and internship experiences. Both Marcia and her parents reported that she likes working with people, that she likes working inside, and that she would prefer an office setting. Marcia's vocational education teacher observed her in a simulated work experience and reported that Marcia followed instructions when given visual cues from a co-worker. The vocational educator and vocational rehabilitation counselor identified a small business that needed office assistance. Marcia, working with the vocational rehabilitation counselor and her special education teacher, set up a job interview at the small business and was successful at obtaining a part-time job as an administrative aide.

The counselor/special educator team observed the work setting and identified the work and social demands of the job. The IEP transition team identified that Marcia would need the following supports to work: visual cues outlining the steps of the job; co-worker to assure safety (for example, in an emergency); monitoring for errors; a flashing light on the telephone; transportation training; and child care for her son. The special educator and rehabilitation counselor provided training to the employer and other employees who, in turn, agreed to provide the natural supports Marcia needed and develop the visual clues for the steps of the job.

The occupational therapist and the family developed a plan for Marcia to learn how to travel using the city buses. The social worker identified a good low-cost child care setting, and the Department of Social Services agreed to cost-share these services with Marcia (who receives SSI) until one year after graduation. The social worker also agreed to coordinate Marcia's participation in a parenting class offered by the Health Department. The IEP Team recommended a consultation with a representative from the Social Security Administration (SSA) to provide guidance on benefits and the use of any work incentives.

The local school agreed to provide a job coach initially, and the Department of Mental Retardation Services agreed to pick up this cost six months prior to graduation. The rehabilitation counselor, who specializes in working with students with hearing impairments, agreed to act as job monitor for this placement and to follow up with Adult Education or the Literacy Council for Marcia's continued education options. The rehabilitation counselor continued to work with Marcia, and by the time she exited school Marcia had secured a full-time position at the business.

Planning for Education After High School (Carlos's Plan)

What Does This Student Need?

ASSESSMENT that identifies strengths, needs, interests, preferences for postsecondary education.

DEVELOPMENT of postsecondary education options.

MATCHING of student and postsecondary education setting.

PREPARATION for postsecondary education.


Actions the High School Transition Team May Recommend

For Assessment:

  • assess student's self-advocacy skills, academic preparation, and college bound test scores
  • assess student's technical skills, social skills, independent living skills
  • interview youth regarding educational setting interests and preferences -- size, setting, programs (use other methods to assess interests and preferences if student is nonverbal)
  • identify youth's long-term career goals
  • develop a list of supports student needs to achieve postsecondary education goals
  • discuss health care issues that may impact student in postsecondary setting
  • identify needed natural supports, academic or physical
    accommodations, and support services

For Development:

  • visit campuses
  • participate in college night
  • have college students with disabilities talk to youth
  • research colleges and universities that offer special services to students with disabilities
  • discuss financial issues
  • discuss preferred location of college

For Matching:

  • analyze the demands and expectations of the postsecondary education setting -- accessibility, support services availability, academic rigor, social culture, independent living setting
  • match the student's assessment and list of needed supports to the demands of the postsecondary education setting

For Preparation:

  • provide developmental academic support and coursework needed to prepare for postsecondary education goals
  • assist youth with applications, interviews, and test preparation
  • identify potential service providers
  • develop natural supports
  • provide self-advocacy training

For Placement and Follow-along:

  • monitor progress in the postsecondary setting
  • monitor changing need for natural supports
  • monitor changing need for services
  • advocate for changes and adjustments, as needed
Mark's Independence

Mark, a 20-year-old youth with mental retardation, will be finishing high school next year. Mark has long expressed a strong desire to live independently after leaving high school. His older brother has his own apartment, and Mark associates living on his own with being an adult. Living independently is part of Mark's transition plan, which also includes employment and attending a community recreation program for adults with disabilities.

Two years ago Mark's family, working on the advice of the other IEP Team members, put him on a waiting list to be matched with other individuals who are looking for housing. Over the past three years, the IEP Team has worked on improving Mark's advocacy and independent living skills. Mark's family contacted the local Arc and was able to connect with a mentor to help Mark strengthen his self-advocacy skills. The occupational therapist at school focused on improving the critical living skills Mark needed to live on his own.

At the beginning of this school year, Mark's family contacted the county agency that serves adults with disabilities. The agency assigned a service coordinator (sometimes called a case manager) to work with Mark and his IEP Team. The service coordinator, along with the IEP Team, determined the level and types of support Mark needed, and arranged for the necessary supports he needed to keep a job and live with others. The IEP Team, including Mark's family and the service coordinator, determined that Mark could live with individuals with other disabilities in a house or apartment on a cost-share basis as long as he received daily assistance. A residential support person would visit Mark every day to monitor that his needs were being met, to help with finances and nutrition, and to set up recreational activities.

Mark also would need training on how to use city transit system, so he could travel independently from home to job and the community recreation center. His IEP Team established an IEP goal for Mark to learn how to use public transportation. The Department of Rehabilitative Services counselor reported that rehabilitation services could assist Mark in purchasing the assistive devices he will need on the job. The service coordinator agreed to monitor Mark's integration into the community over the year following graduation.

Planning for Living Independently (Mark's Plan)

What Does This Student Need?

ASSESSMENT that identifies strengths, needs, interests, preferences for adult and independent living, including recreation and leisure.

DEVELOPMENT of adult living placement options, including recreation and leisure (not needed immediately, but for planning purposes).

MATCH youth to adult living placement options, including recreation and leisure.

TRAINING and PREPARATION for adult living.


Actions the High School Transition Team May Recommend

For Assessment:

  • interview youth and family regarding adult and independent living interests and preferences (use other methods to assess interests and preferences if student is nonverbal)
  • observe youth in independent living or recreational setting
  • interview youth and family regarding medical needs
  • interview youth and family regarding financial plans
  • identify transportation skills and needs
  • develop a list of supports student needs to be successful
  • identify needed natural supports, accommodations, and support services

For Development:

  • analyze adult living options in the local area (for example, group homes, supported living homes, roommates)
  • analyze locality for leisure/recreation options in the local area
  • coordinate with other families and youth looking for adult living options
  • provide training and education for families and youth regarding living and financial options for transition-aged youth
  • analyze community for transportation options

For Matching:

  • analyze the demands and expectations of the adult living and community participation options
  • match the student's assessment and list of supports to the demands and expectations of these options

For Training and Preparation:

  • provide instruction to prepare youth to enter identified adult living and community options
  • identify potential service providers for needed supports and
  • develop natural supports
  • provide opportunities to participate in the community in the
    identified settings

For Placement and Follow-along:

  • monitor progress
  • monitor changing need for natural supports
  • monitor changing need for services
  • make adjustments, as needed
Transition Services Phone Interview Guide

When you are starting your cold calling and search for service providers, start with agencies that can refer you to other organizations, such as Vocational Rehabilitation or an Independent Living Center.

Name of Organization

Name of Person You Spoke with



Phone Number _______________Fax Number_____________Date Contacted______________

Sample phone script:

"Hello, this is _____________________. I am a (teacher, parent, family member, administrator, coordinator) of a youth (young adult) who is" [OR if you are the student, then "I am"] __________ (exploring career options, exploring where to live after graduation, interested in a recreational program, or whatever fits your ultimate goals). I am looking for information to help in planning for my (own, son's, daughter's, family member's, student's) future. I found your organization through ______________________________ (another agency, the yellow pages, a publication) and I am interested in learning more about what services you provide (or what your organization does). Could you tell me who in your organization I should talk to about this? Thank you.

Please tell me about your agency/organization. Who do you serve? What services do you offer?

How does one get involved with your agency/organization? Are there special eligibility or admission requirements? How does one apply?

Are there costs involved in participating in your agency's or organization's programs? If so, how much are they? Do you offer special rates?

Do you have any ideas about how your agency or organization might help meet a need such as: [Describe a "specific problem or need" that you might have, for example: youth has a visual disability and needs assistance changing buses; youth has physical disability and is interested in playing a sport; teen parent with a learning disability needs child care so that she can go to work after school; and so forth.]

Could you refer me to some other people, agencies, or organizations that might offer some services to meet this need?

Do you have any written materials describing your agency (or organization)? If so, could you please send them to me _________________[your name] at______________________ [your address]. Thank you for speaking with me today. This information is very helpful in planning my (own, student's, son's, daughter's) future as a member of our community. Best wishes for fulfilling your agency's (or organization's) mission.

Conclusion: Taking the First Steps

To improve transition results for young people with disabilities, individual transition team members and community transition team members must work creatively. Many services exist in every community. If transition team members cultivate relationships with these resources and combine successful teamwork methods with the services available in their community, they will be able to create dynamic individual plans. Here are some starting steps.

  • Write down your long-term goals and what you think you need to do to reach these.
  • Read your IEP and transition plan and decide if the plan is being implemented.
  • Tell your teachers you want to lead your own IEP meeting and ask them to help you learn what to do.
  • Learn about your civil rights under the law, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  • Learn about your disability, how to explain to people your strengths, and how to ask for reasonable accommodations.
  • Practice job interviews and/or asking for accommodations.
  • Talk with your doctor and parents about your health care needs so you will be ready to take responsibility for them.
  • Ask your teacher how to get involved with your community's transition team.
Family Members:
  • Observe your son or daughter's independent living skills, work behaviors, social involvement, dreams, and hopes.
  • Call your child's teachers and ask that transition services, including financial planning, be addressed at your next meeting.
  • Help your child learn about his or her disability and how to ask for the supports he or she needs.
  • Give your child responsibility for chores at home.
  • Role play different situations with your child (e.g., interviews).
  • Discuss your child's medical needs with him or her and facilitate discussions with your doctor.
  • Introduce your child to adult role models with disabilities.
  • Look in your phone book and Yellow Pages and identify three new possible resources to help your son or daughter's transition to adult activities.
School or Agency Administrators:
  • Evaluate transition services in your system.
  • Look into establishing or strengthening your community transition team.
  • Make a phone call to develop a new community agency contact.
  • Find some funding to share across agencies or for service development.
  • Set up a meeting with staff members to learn each person's expertise in transition.
  • Develop a cooperative agreement with another agency specifying how to coordinate transition.
  • Encourage your staff to be creative in problem solving.
Special Educators:
  • Talk to students and families about transition services.
  • Ask to attend a conference, workshop, or other learning opportunity related to transition.
  • Teach students about their civil rights under the law, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  • Pledge to conduct collaborative, needs-based IEP meetings that empower youth and families.
  • Provide youth with step-by-step activities that familiarize them with the IEP process and prepare them to take active roles.
  • Call the local rehabilitation counselor or mental retardation case manager and coordinate a meeting.
  • Use the Transition Services Phone Interview Guide presented earlier in this publication and call one community agency or resource.
Vocational Educators/Educators:
  • Contact a special educator and find out when IEPs are scheduled for your current or future students.
  • Offer to provide a tour of your program and share your knowledge and expertise in job competencies, job development, and job placement.
  • Identify one student receiving special education services and work with him or her to provide vocational counseling to help define realistic career goals.
  • Develop a plan to coordinate your work-study program with all the special education community-based work programs.
Guidance Counselors:
  • Create a workshop for students on self-advocacy skills that would promote success in postsecondary education or employment settings.
  • Ask to attend a workshop, inservice, or other training to learn about community agencies and resources.
  • Ask a college representative about services for students with disabilities.
Community Agency Service Providers:
  • Attend a workshop, inservice, or other training to learn about community agencies and resources.
  • Develop a folder that contains some of the wealth of information you have about community resources and how to access them, and share with IEP Team members, transition councils, families, students, and administrators.
  • Identify three things that could help you actively participate in the IEP process when appropriate, and share these with the high school administrator or special educator/transition specialist.
Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors:
  • Schedule regular office hours at schools that you work with.
  • Support activities and use of assistive technology for students in high school that result in employment.
  • Serve on a local transition committee.
  • Share your knowledge of the job market and job assessments.
Any of the Above:
  • Identify two ways you can add to the collaborative transition planning process; share this with administrators, special educators/transition specialists, or other service providers.
  • Offer to take the lead to develop a community transition resource directory for your community.
  • Most of all, take any one proactive step in your community towards collaborative transition planning and observe the results.

You can work to improve the system of transition services both at the individual level and in your community. It's worth it!


Alliance for Technology Access (ATA), 2175 East Francisco Blvd., Suite L, San Rafael, CA 94939. Telephone: (800) 455-7970; (415) 455-4575; (415) 455-0491 (TTY). E-mail: Web:

Americans with Disabilities Act Disability and Business Technical Assistance Centers (DBTACs). Telephone: 1-800-949-4232. (The DBTACs provide information, referral, TA, and training on the ADA.). Web:

Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD), University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125-3393. Telephone: (617) 287-3880; (617) 287-3882 (TTY). E-mail: Web:

Beach Center on Families and Disability, University of Kansas, 3111 Haworth Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045. Telephone: (785) 864-7600. E-mail: Web:

Council for Exceptional Children, Division on Career Development and Transition, 1110 N. Glebe Road, Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201-5704. Telephone: (703) 620-3660 (Voice); (703) 264-9446 (TTY). Web:

Easter Seals National Headquarters, 230 W. Monroe, Suite 1800, Chicago, IL 60606. Telephone: (312) 726-6200; 1-800-221-6827. E-Mail: Web:

Easter Seals Project ACTION, 700 13th Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 347-3066; (202) 347-7385 (TTY). E-mail: Web:

Employer Assistance Referral Network (EARN). Telephone: 1-866-327-6669. E-mail: Web:

HEATH Resource Center (National Clearinghouse on Postsecondary Education for Individuals with Disabilities), George Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2121 K Street N.W., Suite 220, Washington, DC 20037. Telephone: (800) 544-3284 (V/TTY); (202) 973-0904. E-mail: Web:

Job Accommodation Network (JAN), 918 Chestnut Ridge Road, Suite 1, P.O. Box 6080, Morgantown, WV 26506-6080. Telephone: (800) 526-7234 (Voice/TTY); (800) 232-9675 (Voice/TTY, information on the ADA). E-mail: Web:

Mobility International USA (MIUSA), P.O. Box 10767, Eugene, OR 97440. Telephone: (541) 343-1284 (Voice/TTY). E-mail: Web:

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, University of Minnesota, 6 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455. Telephone: 612) 624-2097. E-mail: Web:

National Center on Workforce and Disability/Adult, Institute for Community Inclusion, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125. Telephone: 1-888-886-9898 (V/TTY). E-mail:

National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability/Youth, Institute for Educational Leadership, 1001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 310, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: 1-877-871-0744. E-mail:

National Council on Independent Living (NCIL), 1916 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 209, Arlington, VA 22201. Telephone: (703) 525-3406; (703) 525-4153 (TTY). E-mail: Web:

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY), P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013. Telephone: 1-800-695-0285; (202) 884-8200 (Voice/TTY). E-mail: Web:

National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC), 4200 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 202, Lanham, MD 20706. Telephone: (800) 346-2742. E-mail: Web:

Office of Disability Employment Policy (formerly the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210. Telephone: (202) 376-6200.
E-mail: Web:

Research and Training Center on Independent Living, University of Kansas, 4089 Dole Building, Lawrence, KS 66045-2930. Telephone: (913) 864-4095 (Voice/TTY). E-mail: Web:

Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers (the Alliance), PACER Center, 8161 Normandale Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55437-1044. Telephone: (888) 248-0822; (952) 838-9000; (952) 838-0190 (TTY). E-mail: Web:

Transition Research Institute at Illinois (TRI), College of Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 113 Children's Research Center, 51 Gerty Drive, Champaign, IL 61820. Telephone: (217) 333-2325. Web:

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1801 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20507. Telephone: 1-800-669-4000; 1-800-669-6820 (TTY). Web:

More Organizations
If you want more information about national and/or disability-specific organizations, call NICHCY at 1.800.695.0285. You can also visit our Web site ( and search on-line for organizations using our "Search for Information" feature.


Alliance for Technology Access. (2000). Computer and web resources for people with disabilities: A guide to exploring today's assistive technology (3rd ed.). Alameda, CA: Hunter House. [Available from Alliance for Technology Access. See "Organizations," above.]

Barclay, J., & Cobb, J. (Eds.). (2001). Full life ahead: A workbook and guide to adult life for students and families of students with disabilities (Rev. ed.). Montgomery, AL: Southeast Regional Resource Center. (Available on-line at:

Blalock, G., & Benz, M. (1999). Using community transition teams to improve transition services (Pro-Ed Series on Transition). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Materials Published by Pro-Ed or Paul H. Brookes

In this resource list, you'll see many materials published by Pro-Ed, Inc., and by Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Here's the contact information for these two publishers:

8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78757

Paul H. Brookes Publishing
P.O. Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624

Bolles, R.N. (in press). What color is your parachute?: A practical manual for job-hunters and career-changers (2003 ed.). Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. (Available from: Ten Speed Press, P.O. Box 7123, Berkeley, CA 94707. Telephone: 1-800-841- 2665. Web:

Clark, G.M., & Patton, J.R. (1997). Transition planning inventory: Assessing transition needs. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Clark, G.M., Patton, J.R., & Moulton, L.R. (2000). Informal assessments for transition planning. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Clark, H.B., & Davis, M. (2000). Transition to adulthood: A resource for assisting young people with emotional or behavioral difficulties. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Cozzens, G., Dowdy, C., & Smith, T.E.C. (1999). Adult agencies: Linkages for adolescents in transition (Pro-Ed Series on Transition). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

DeBoer, A. (1995). Working together: The art of consulting and communicating. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. (Available from: Sopris West, 4093 Specialty Place, Longmont, CO 80504. Telephone: (303) 651-2829. E-mail: Web:

DeFur, S. (2000). Designing individualized education program (IEP) transition plans (ERIC Digest E598). Arlington, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (Available on-line at:

Elksnin N., & Elksnin, L.K. (1998). Teaching occupational social skills (Pro-Ed Series on Transition). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Evers, R.B., & Elksnin, N. (1998). Working with students with disabilities in vocational/technical settings (Pro-Ed Series on Transition). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Field, S., & Hoffman, A. Steps to self-determination: A curriculum to help adolescents learn to achieve their goals. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Field, S., Hoffman, A., & Spezla, S. (1998). Self-determination strategies for adolescents in transition (Pro-Ed Series on Transition). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Halpern, A.S., Herr, C.M., Doren, B., & Wolf, N.K.. (2000). Next S.T.E.P.: Student transition and educational planning. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

HEATH Resource Center. (2002). Creating options: A resource on financial aid for students with disabilities (2002 ed.). Washington, DC: Author. (Available on-line at:

Holburn, S., & Vietze, P.M. (Eds.). (2002). Person-centered planning: Research, practice, and future directions. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Hughes, C., & Carter, E.W. (2000). The transition handbook: Strategies high school teachers use that work! Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Klein, E., & Hahn, S.E. (1999). Focus on transition: A workbook for independent living skills. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

MacKenzie, L. (Ed.). (2002). The complete directory for people with disabilities: 2003 edition (11th ed.). Lakeville, CT: Grey House. (Available from Grey House Publishing, 185 Millerton Road, P.O. Box 860, Millerton, NY 12546. Telephone: 1-800-562-2139; (518) 789-8700. Web:

Martin, J.E., Mithaug, D.E., Oliphint, J.H., Husch, J.V., & Frazier, E.S. (2002). Self-directed employment: A handbook for transition teachers and employment specialistists. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Morales, T., Holland, R., & Brown, S. (n.d.). Access transition. San Rafael, CA: Alliance for Technology Access. (Available on-line at:

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET). (2002). IDEA 1997: Implications for secondary education and transition services. Policy Update, 1(1), 1-8. (Available on-line at:

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET). (2002, June). Parenting post-secondary students with disabilities: Becoming the mentor, Advocate, and guide your young adult needs. Parent Brief, 1, 1-4. (Available on-line at:

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET), & PACER Center. (2002, July). IDEA 1997 transition issues. Parent Brief, 2, 1-6. (Available on-line at:

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET), & PACER Center. (2002, May). Age of majority: Preparing your child for making good choices. Parent Brief, 3, 1-6. (Available on-line at:

National Center on Workforce and Disability. (2002, June). One-stop career centers: Serving people with disabilities. Brief, 1, 1-8. (Available on-line at:

National Center on Workforce and Disability. (2002, August). One-stop career centers and the new ticket to work and self-sufficiency program. Brief, 2, 1-12. (Available on-line at:

PACER Center. (1996). Transition trek game. Minneapolis, MN: Author. (Available from: PACER Center, 8161 Normandale Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55437-1044. Telephone: (952) 838-9000; (952) 838-0190 (TTY). Web:

PACER Center. (2001). Transition and what? Minneapolis, MN: Author. (See contact information above.)

PACER Center. (2002). Transition tips and tools. Minneapolis, MN: Author. (See contact information above.)

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