Arithmetic for Praxis II ParaPro Test Prep Study Guide
The practice quiz for this study guide can be found at:
This section covers the basics of mathematical operations and their sequence. It also reviews whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, percents, and estimation.
The Number Line
The number line is a graphical representation of the order of numbers. As you move to the right, the value increases. As you move to the left, the value decreases.
A number line can show the approximate values of certain numbers. For example, the following number line shows that –4.5 is halfway between –5 and –4 and that 2.2 is closer to 2 than it is to 3.
The following table will illustrate some comparison symbols:
In addition, the numbers being added are called addends. The result is called a sum. The symbol for addition is called a plus sign. In the following example, 4 and 5 are addends and 9 is the sum:
- 4 + 5 = 9
In subtraction, the number being subtracted is called the subtrahend. The number being subtracted from is called the minuend. The answer to a subtraction problem is called a difference. The symbol for subtraction is called a minus sign. In the following example, 15 is the minuend, 4 is the subtrahend, and 11 is the difference:
- 15 – 4 = 11
When two or more numbers are being multiplied, they are called factors. The answer that results is called the product. In the following example, 5 and 6 are factors and 30 is their product:
5 ×6 = 30
There are several ways to represent multiplication in this mathematical statement.
A dot between factors indicates multiplication:
5 · 6 = 30
Parentheses around any one or more factors indicate multiplication:
(5)6 = 30, 5(6) = 30, and (5)(6) = 30.
Multiplication is also indicated when a number is placed next to a variable: 5a = 30. In this equation, 5 is being multiplied by a.
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