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# Data Organization and Interpretation for Praxis II ParaPro Test Prep Study Guide

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Updated on Jul 5, 2011

The practice quiz for this study guide can be found at:

Math for Praxis II ParaPro Test Prep Practice Problems

To answer the data-based questions on the ParaPro Assessment, you will need to understand how to interpret graphs and tables, as well as find the mean, median, and mode of a data set.

### Graphs and Tables

On the ParaPro Assessment you will see graphs, tables, and other graphical forms. You should be able to do the following:

• read and understand graphs, tables, diagrams, charts, figures, etc.
• interpret graphs, tables, diagrams, charts, figures, etc.
• compare and contrast information presented in graphs, tables, diagrams, charts, figures, etc.
• draw conclusions about the information provided
• make predictions about the data

It is important to read tables, charts, and graphs very carefully. Read all of the information presented, paying special attention to headings and units of measure. This section will cover tables and graphs. The most common types of graphs are pictographs, bar graphs, line graphs, and pie graphs. What follows is an explanation of each, with examples for practice.

### Tables

All tables are composed of rows (horizontal) and columns (vertical). Entries in a single row of a table usually have something in common, and so do entries in a single column. Look at the table below that shows how many cars, both new and used, were sold during the particular months.

Tables are concise ways to convey important information without wasting time and space. Just imagine how many lines of text would be needed to convey the same information. With the table, however, it is easy to refer to a given month and quickly know how many total cars were sold. It is also easy to compare month to month. Practice using tables by comparing the total sales of July with October.

In order to do this, first find out how many cars were sold in each month. There were 235 cars sold in July (155 + 80 = 235) and 405 cars sold in October (265 + 140 = 405).With a little bit of quick arithmetic, it can be determined quickly that 170 more cars were sold during October (405 – 235 = 170).

### Bar Graphs

A bar graph is a often used to indicate an amount or level of occurrence of a phenomenon for different categories. Consider the following bar graph. It illustrates the number of employees, in two different age groups, who were absent due to illness during a particular week.

In this bar graph, the categories are the days of the week, and the bars indicate the number of employees who are sick, giving overall data on the frequency of sick days among employees. It can be seen immediately that more of the younger employees are sick before and after the weekend. There is also some inconsistency among the younger employees, with data ranging all over the place. During mid-week, the older crowd tends to stay home more often.

### Pictographs

Pictographs are very similar to bar graphs, but instead of bars indicating frequency, small icons are assigned a key value indicating frequency.

In this pictograph, the key indicates that every icon represents 10 people, so it is easy to determine that there were 12 × 10 = 120 freshmen, 5.5 × 10 = 55 sophomores, 5 × 10 = 50 juniors, and 3 × 10 = 30 seniors.