A Description of IQ Ranges
Extremely Low Range Children who score in the extremely low range are in the bottom 2 percent of the population. Children who are within this range would be expected to find academic skills very challenging and would most likely require special education services to master basic academic concepts. When a child scores within this range, or the borderline range, the school psychologist (or social worker) will require additional information about adaptive functioning levels (daily living skills).
Adaptive Functioning: It is always helpful to obtain information about adaptive behavior from the child's teacher and parents, because each can provide a different perspective on adaptive skills evident at home and at school.
Interviewing the parent can often provide valuable information about the child's developmental history (when the child started walking, talking, and so forth) and medical history. There are also adaptive rating scales that parents and teachers can complete, such as the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II) or the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II). These scales assess daily adaptive functioning or living skills in areas such as self-care, independence, communication skills, social skills, leisure activities, health and safety, and so forth. An example of some of the questions that may be asked about past development can be seen in Table 7.2, along with other thoughts to consider in preparing for an education meeting. Information that teachers may want to bring to the meeting, as well as questions and considerations they may have for the parent, are presented in Table 7.3.
Scores for adaptive functioning can also be reported as standard scores, and comparisons can be made between IQ level and adaptive levels in several areas. Informed decision making for children who score within the extremely low IQ range requires consideration of several factors, including intellectual level, academic performance, and adaptive functioning (strengths and weaknesses in adaptive skills). Interventions would be expected to target skill development in the adaptive as well as academic areas.
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