Lectura Prueba de La Práctica Avanzada: Aprenda Rápido Lectura en Inglés
Tome esta prueba avanzada para determinar cuánto ha aprendido. Hay una hoja de respuestas para llenar con las repuestas correctas. Si prefiere, sólo marque en un círculo las repuestas. Anote en otra hoja los números de 1–50 y ponga sus respuestas allí. Tómese el tiempo que necesite para esta prueba. Una vez que termine, compare sus respuestas con aquéllas que siguen este examen.
La prueba consiste en una serie de pasajes con preguntas para evaluar su poder de comprensión.
Statement by Senator Alan Cranston before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks and Forests in support of Senate Bill 7, the California Desert Protection Act, July 21, 1987 (excerpt)
Mr. Chairman, last April and May, I made two trips to the California Desert with a group of naturalists, environmentalists, and scientists to look at some of the areas described in our legislation. We camped out on the desert floor. We hiked mountains. We trekked up and through narrow desert wilderness canyons. We found snakes, lizards, and other animals on huge, wild sand dunes. We looked at recreational sites for ORVs—dune buggies, ATVs, and motorcycles. We saw scores of flowers and plants, including an 11,000-yearold creosote bush, which may be the oldest living organism on the planet Earth. We drove hundreds of miles over dirt and paved roads through Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Monuments. We flew over huge mining operations, water projects, military installations, and miles of farming and ranching lands. We held lizards in our hands and saw nighttime skies of incredible beauty and the myriad stars of endless galaxies.
One sunset we climbed the Eureka Dunes, looming, awesome sand structures that are a miniature ecosystem of incredible complexity. The dunes are surrounded by towering mountain ranges of rugged, stark, and massive igneous rocks whose antiquity and structure bespoke of long-ago geological eons.
Climbing the 8,500-foot Last Chance mountain peak, we saw a sweeping, 360-degree view, the snow-capped Sierra Nevada in the west and, far to the south, Death Valley sink, 280 feet below sea level. The awesome presence of overwhelming time and force surround you in the desert. There is an immense, almost incomprehensible beauty there that attracts people from all over the world, totaling some 16 million visitors a year.
The desert is a land of many uses and many resources. And it is vast enough to support the many varied demands being made upon it—by recreationists, campers, hikers, tourists, military, residents, energy developers, miners, rock hounds, hunters, ranchers, naturalists, scientists, and educators. The desert can support all those diverse interests provided only that the demands made upon it are in concert with the ecological and economic realities of the region.
… I've made other trips to the desert, but this time I came away more determined than ever to help conserve, protect, and manage these vast natural resources for the greatest number of people and for the greatest good, not just of California, but the nation as a whole; and not just for the immediate gratification of a few, but for the millions in future generations who follow in our footsteps.
Mr. Chairman, this legislation is necessary because of the breach of trust by Secretary Hodel—"Mr. Environment Buster"—in failing to protect the desert. His opposition to our bill is unfortunate but not surprising, considering his record over the past two and one-half years. From the mountains to the deserts, from the oceans to the ozone, Hodel has aided and abetted a creeping destruction, degradation, and devastation of our environment. Hodel closes his eyes to strip mining violations in Kentucky, ignores the problems of acid rain in New England and Canada, pushes oil exploration and drilling in protected sanctuaries of Alaska, condones below-rim tourist flights through the Grand Canyon, and encourages oil companies to rape the beauty and the resources of coasts on both sides of our continent, from California to Massachusetts.
- In the opening paragraph, Senator Cranston includes several short sentences beginning with the word we. What is the most likely purpose of this repeated sentence structure?
- to emphasize the Senator's willingness to exert himself
- to emphasize how comprehensive the study was
- to emphasize the rugged physical nature of the desert landscape
- to contrast the natural beauty of the desert with the scars left on the terrain by humans
- Cranston's description of his visit to the desert is arranged
- chronologically, in the order desert sites were visited.
- chronologically, with more ancient geological features preceding more recent developments.
- by importance, with more significant features listed first.
- poetically, according to the impact of the language.
- Which of the following things is NOT included in Senator Cranston's list of things he saw in the desert?
- Death Valley
- recreational areas
- military installations
- Devil's Playground sand dunes
- Senator Cranston's primary concern is that
- the desert be preserved.
- private enterprise continue to have access to the desert's resources.
- tourists and other recreationists be given greater access to the desert.
- access to the desert be cut off entirely so that it can have a chance to heal itself.
- In describing the actions of Secretary of the Interior Hodel, Cranston creates a portrait of a man who
- fails to stand up to the misguided demands of the public at large.
- profits financially from the abuse of public resources.
- allows and even promotes the ruin of the natural areas under his care.
- has a greater interest in protecting forests and seashores than in protecting the desert.
- By calling Secretary Hodel "Mr. Environment Buster," Senator Cranston is
- using a time-honored form of political argument that dignifies his own position on the issues.
- resorting to name calling, a lower form of argument that is likely to alienate his political adversaries.
- making an objective, unemotional assertion based on his observations of the Secretary's practices.
- merely quoting what others say about the Secretary and thereby distancing himself from the opinion.
- Throughout the passage on Secretary Hodel, Cranston uses all of the following verbs to express his disapproval of the Secretary's practices. Which most heatedly conveys this negative opinion?
- to aid and abet
- to condone
- to rape
- to ignore
Summaries of Three Recent Studies on Smoking
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (excerpt)
The first article, State-Specific Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking—United States, 1995, represents the first compilation of adult smoking prevalence rates reported in compliance with the recommendation unanimously voted on by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists to add prevalence of cigarette smoking to the list of conditions designated as reportable by states to the CDC. This study shows more than a twofold variation in state-specific smoking rates. Other findings of the study include the prevalence of current cigarette smoking ranged from 13.2% in Utah to 27.8% in Kentucky. This wide variation shows there is much room for progress in reducing tobacco use and improving tobacco control measures. Only Utah has achieved the national health objective for the year 2000 of reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults to no more than 15%; this objective has been nearly met in California. The percentage of smokers who smoke every day ranged from 79.7% in New Jersey to 92.9% in Oklahoma. The percentage of every-day smokers who had quit for at least one day in the past year ranged from 32.4% in Georgia to 59.4% in Hawaii.
The second article, Cigarette Smoking Before and After an Excise Tax Increase and an Anti-Smoking Campaign—Massachusetts, 1990–1996, shows that combining a cigarette tax hike with a statewide media campaign markedly reduced cigarette consumption in Massachusetts. Between 1992 and 1996, percapita cigarette consumption in Massachusetts fell more than three times as fast as in the 48 states not having such a program. Other findings of the study include: Between 1992, the year prior to implementation of the voters' petition, and 1996, per-capita cigarette consumption declined 20% in Massachusetts compared with 16% in California, the only other state with a similar ballot initiative, and 6% in the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. In the period 1990–1992 to 1993–1995, adult smoking prevalence declined at similar rates in Massachusetts (2.2 percentage points) and California (2.7 percentage points) and by about 0.8 percentage points for 41 other states combined (where state-specific prevalence rates were available). The decline in per-capita cigarette consumption in Massachusetts between 1992 and 1996 cannot be attributed to purchases in neighboring states, particularly New Hampshire.
The third article, Projected Smoking Related Deaths Among Youth—United States, estimates that unless teen smoking rates are cut immediately, more than 5 million young people under age 18 will die from a smokingrelated disease. These deaths could result in almost $200 billion in future health care costs and about 64 million years of life lost for the youth of this nation. The study also found more than 5 million children living today will die prematurely because of a decision they will make as adolescents—the decision to smoke cigarettes. One out of three young people (32%) who become regular smokers will die of a smoking-related disease. More than half (55%) of smokers continue to smoke up to one year before their death.
- Applying the facts about tobacco-related deaths discussed in the last paragraph to the data on smoking rates in paragraph one, which of the following states is likely to have the lowest mortality rate from smoking in the future?
- Which state has the highest percentage of smokers who smoke daily?
- New Jersey
- "This wide variation shows there is much room for progress in reducing tobacco use and improving tobacco control measures." This sentence from paragraph one draws its conclusion from
- statistics showing the differences in smoking rates between some states.
- a comparative study of anti-smoking efforts made in the various states.
- the change in smoking rates observed over the period under study.
- the increase in the number of young people using tobacco products.
- Look again at the sentence quoted in question 10. An alternative way of phrasing this argument would be to say, "This wide variation shows that tobacco control measures have failed." What effect would this alternative wording have on readers?
- It would reduce their confidence in the author
- It would make them question the data, because the conclusion goes against logic.
- It would make them look more favorably upon the efforts that have been made to date.
- It would make them look less favorably upon the efforts that have been made to date.
- What, according to the passage, is the relationship between smoking rates in Massachusetts and in California?
- Both states have a low incidence of smoking fatalities.
- Both states saw adult smoking rates decline by 2 percent or more.
- Both states have reached the 15 percent smoking objective for year 2000.
- These two states have the lowest percentages of people who smoke.
- If a writer wished to rely on the statistics provided in this article to make an antismoking argument, what would the most likely conclusion be?
- Tobacco use can be effectively reduced through excise taxes and antismoking campaigns.
- Tobacco use cannot be effectively reduced through excise taxes and antismoking campaigns.
- Tobacco use can be effectively reduced through excise taxes, but not through antismoking campaigns.
- Tobacco use can be effectively reduced through antismoking campaigns, but not through excise taxes.
- The final sentence of paragraph two states that reduced smoking in Massachusetts "cannot be attributed to purchases in neighboring states." This statement is presented as
- an opinion and has logic supporting it.
- an opinion but has no logic supporting it.
- a fact and has logic supporting it.
- a fact but has no logic supporting it.
- "The study also found more than 5 million children living today will die prematurely because of a decision they will make as adolescents—the decision to smoke cigarettes." This idea from paragraph three could be also briefly stated as: "The study also found more than 5 million children will die prematurely because of a decision they will make as adolescents to smoke cigarettes." If the author wishes to discourage cigarette smoking, which alternative is best, and why?
- the first, because the more words that are devoted to an argument, the more likely it is to have an impact
- the first, because the phrase living today underscores the tragedy, and because the repetition of the word decision drives home the choice involved
- the second, because it is more direct and to the point
- the second, because it makes the relationship clearer between the decision and death
"The Weekly Visit"
(short story excerpt)
The requisite visit happened typically on sunny Saturdays, when my child spirits were at their highest and could be most diminished by the cramped interior of her house. My mother, accustomed to the bright, spacious farmhouse that was once Grandma's, seemed no less susceptible to the gloom. She would set her jaw as Grandma described the many ailments attendant on age and would check her watch—an hour being the minimum she expected herself to withstand. Her barely contained impatience and my grandmother's crippling age radiated out around me. We were the women of the Carlson clan, each throbbing with agitation, like concentric, blinking circles on a radar screen.
I would sit at the white-and-red metal table with the pull-out leaves and built-in silverware drawer, cracking almonds. This was the one good thing at Grandma's house, the almonds, which she kept in a green Depression glass bowl. I would lift the lid carefully and try to set it down on the metal table quietly, then attempt to crack the nuts without scattering the shell crumbs. It was not good to draw attention to myself at Grandma Carlson's. Sounding angry, she would call to me in her croupy drawl. When I failed to understand her, she would reach out to me with her palsied, slick, wrinkled hand and shout, "Here!" She would be offering some of her horehound candy, which tasted like a cross between butterscotch and bitter sticks.
There was this lamentable air in the dim house with its itchy mohair furniture and its dark colors, an awareness—Grandma's—underlying the mentholatum, that her age scared her grandkids. I would yearn during the dutiful visit to get outside into the yard, where Grandma had transplanted a few flowers when she moved from the farm. But even the yard, with its overgrown hedges and rusted metal lawn chairs, seemed dreary. When I came back inside, light and air bursting in with me, Grandma, her hair up in a gray bun, would rock a little and smile. I would lean then against my mother's chair, Grandma's fond eyes peering at me, and whisper out of the corner of my mouth, "Mom, can we go?"
- From the overall context of the passage, it is most likely that the word lamentable at the beginning of the third paragraph means
- Which of the following does the radar screen image underscore?
- the narrator's absorption in gadgets and the modern world
- the narrator's daydreaming nature
- the narrator's uneasy sense of herself in the same lineage as her mother and grandmother
- all of the above
- In revising this story, the author is considering taking out the reference to "butterscotch and bitter sticks" and instead describing the candy as "bitter with a sweet under-taste." Which is better—the original or this alternative description—and why?
- the original, because it leaves the actual taste up to the reader's imagination
- the original, because it is more vivid and exact
- the alternative, because it is more brief and to the point
- the alternative, because it is more vivid and exact
- Assume this piece is fiction and could have been written from any point of view. What would a switch to third person achieve?
- Readers would be somewhat distanced from the narrator's feelings.
- The author would have more latitude to express the narrator's feelings.
- Readers would be more likely to identify with the feelings expressed.
- The grandmother's feelings would become more apparent.
- In a previous version of this story, the author described the garden as having "lush hedges and quaint metal chairs." Why is it more effective to describe the hedges as "overgrown" and the chairs as "rusted"?
- These words add to the sense of age lingering over the place.
- These words have a negative connotation, which mirrors the girl's feelings about the visits.
- These words make the garden seem like less of an escape than the girl had hoped for.
- All of the above reasons apply.
- Which of the following accurately reflects the comparative attitudes of the characters in this excerpt?
- The attitudes of the mother and the daughter are similar.
- The attitudes of the grandmother and the mother are similar.
- The attitudes of the grandmother and the granddaughter are similar.
- The attitudes of the mother and the daughter are dissimilar.
The Wolf and the Crane
A wolf who had a bone stuck in his throat hired a crane, for a large sum, to put her head into his mouth and draw out the bone. When the crane had extracted the bone and demanded the promised payment, the wolf, grinning and grinding his teeth, exclaimed: "Why you have surely already had a sufficient recompense, in having been permitted to draw out your head in safety from the mouth and jaws of a wolf."
- Following is a list of morals from this and other Aesop fables. Which one is the most likely companion to this fable?
- Self-help is the best help.
- The loiterer often blames delay on his more active friend.
- The greatest kindness will not bind the ungrateful.
- In serving the wicked, expect no reward.
Fly-Rights—A Consumer Guide to Air Travel
If your reservations are booked far enough ahead of time, the airline may offer to mail your tickets to you. However, if you don't receive the tickets and the airline's records show that it mailed them, you may have to go through cumbersome lostticket procedures. It is safer to check the telephone directory for a conveniently located travel agency or airline ticket office and buy your tickets there.
As soon as you receive your ticket, check to make sure all the information on it is correct, especially the airports (if any of the cities have more than one) and the flight dates. Have any necessary corrections made immediately.
It's a good idea to reconfirm your reservations before you start your trip; flight schedules sometimes change. On international trips, most airlines require that you reconfirm your onward or return reservations at least 72 hours before each flight. If you don't, your reservations may be canceled.
Check your tickets as you board each flight to ensure that only the correct coupon has been removed by the airline agent.
- Numbering the paragraphs 1 through 4 as they now appear, choose the option that places them in chronological order.
- 2, 3, 4, 1
- 3, 1, 2, 4
- 3, 2, 1, 4
- 1, 2, 3, 4
- Notice that this manual is written in the second person, employing the you pronoun. Considering the purpose of the manual, is this the best choice and why?
- Yes, because it avoids the necessity to choose between male and female pronouns.
- Yes, because the people who will be doing the traveling are addressed directly.
- No, because not all people travel by plane.
- No, because it makes readers unnecessarily uncomfortable to be addressed directly.
- In paragraph 1, as the passage appears here, why is it suggested that you buy your tickets from a "conveniently located" agency or office?
- because you can stop on your way to the airport to pick up your tickets
- because you can pick your tickets up rather than relying on the mail
- because the airlines themselves often make mistakes in issuing tickets
- because it is good to support local businesses
- Which is a possible result of not following the advice offered in the first sentence of paragraph 2?
- You might fly into the right city, but the wrong airport.
- You might miss your flight, because the date was improperly recorded.
- You might not be allowed to board your flight because the name on the ticket doesn't match that on your ID.
- Any of the above could happen as a result of not following the advice.
Campers Gene and Marie Marsden took pride in being good citizens when in the wild. While driving the three hundred miles from their home in Colorado to the Green River Lakes area of the Wind River Mountains in Wyoming, they instructed their children in the protocol they'd learned in the bear safety pamphlet put out by the Bridger-Teton Forest Service. The number-one rule was"Don't feed the bears!"—whether intentionally or not. Warning the kids not to go anywhere near a bear, the Marsdens had no problem with the intentional part, but the unintentional part was not as easy to avoid as they thought.
Mr. and Mrs. Marsden did their best to keep a tidy camp. While the bear manual had said to hang all food at least ten feet off the ground and four feet out from the trunk of a tree, they did what all the other people in the nearby public campground were doing and locked their food in their little utility trailer at night. Afraid that the scent of the bait might attract a bear, they even locked up Marie's fishing pole. It was always dark when they went to bed, but they perused the campsite with flashlights, making sure nothing was left out. Taking the recommended precaution of sleeping a hundred yards from where they cooked theirfood, they kept the car near their tents, unhitched from the trailer, which they leftup at the other camp. Before going to bed each night, all of the Marsdens took offthe clothes they had worn during the day while eating, replacing them with pajamas that they used only for sleeping. They were careful to lock the dirty laundry in the trailer also. As the pamphlet advised, they took no snacks into their tents.
Gene says he now regrets not having taken their dog into the tent at night, but they liked having him on guard. Small animals would often come sniffing around, and the dog would chase them back into the thickets, then return to the hollow he'd dug for himself in front of the children's tent. But on the night of the encounter, Spike would not stop barking, and Marie Marsden knew he must be sounding the alarm on something more dangerous and dauntless than a raccoon or squirrel. When she unzipped the tent and shone her flashlight in the direction of the cooking area, she saw Spike attempting to hold at bay a young grizzly bear.
They all managed to pile into the car, and with the kids sitting atop stuffed sacks full of clothes and gear, they drove quickly down the trail, calling out the window to Spike and abandoning the cargo trailer to whatever fate the bear might have in store for it. Uncertain whether the bear was following, one of the children opened a door and loaded Spike up on the run. They drove to a pay phone 20 miles away and called a Fish and Game Department ranger, who identified the bear by the white ruff the Marsdens had seen around his neck. The authorities informed the Marsdens that the bear was a young, recently weaned male that they'd been keeping an eye on.
The next morning, the Marsdens heard helicopters circling over the mountain above them and wondered if it might have something to do with the bear. After spending the night in the public campground, they drove back to their site. Wandering the area in search of clues, Marie came to a halt below the tallest spruce. She slapped her head and shouted, "Oh no!"
"What is it?" Gene asked.
Marie pointed at the ground where Spike's dog food bowl lay upside down.
A week after their return home, the Marsdens read the headline in their local paper. "Bear Euthanized in Wind River." According to the article, the Fish and Game Department had shot the young bear because, having been rewarded for invading a human campsite, it would likely do so again.
The Marsdens knew they had been lucky in the encounter, yet much to their shame and sadness, they also knew that the bear had not.
- Which of the following statements is true?
- The Marsdens went camping in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming.
- The pamphlet on camping in bear country was sent to the Marsdens by the Fish and Game Department.
- The Marsdens went camping in the Green River Lakes area near their hometown.
- All of the above statements are true.
- Who does the author imply is mostly to blame in the bear's death?
- the Marsdens, because they were not careful enough
- the bear, because he invaded a human camp
- the Fish and Game authorities, because of poor communication with campers
- the Forest Service, for putting out incomplete information
- In paragraph 2, it can be determined from the context that the word perused means
- In paragraph 3, it can be determined from the context that the word dauntless means
- This story is arranged
- like a news story, with the most important event told first.
- in reverse chronological order, with the last event first.
- in standard chronological order, with events told in the order they occurred.
- in mixed, random order.
- What was the reward referred to in the next to last paragraph?
- the bear seeing the Marsdens run from him
- the bear receiving no punishment for disturbing humans
- the bear being able to stand off Spike
- the bear getting the dog food
- The tone and style of this piece make it appropriate for which of the following types of publications?
- a scientific report on human-bear interaction
- a pamphlet on bear safety such as the one the Marsdens read
- a statistical study on bear fatalities in the Western mountains
- a human interest article in the Sunday magazine of a newspaper
A Plains Childhood
When I think of my family's history on the land, I experience a pang of regret. Unlike much of the arid West, where the land has gone virtually unchanged for centuries, my place of origin, western Kansas, has been torn up by agriculture. The flat plains, excellent soil, and sparse but just adequate rainfall permitted farming; therefore, farming prevailed, and a good 90% of the original sod prairie is gone. The consequence, in human terms, is that our relationship to our place has always felt primarily mercantile. We used the land and denied, or held at bay, its effect on us. Yet from my earliest childhood, when most of the Kansas prairie was still intact, I've known that the land also had a romantic quality. I've felt moved by the expanse of it, enthralled by its size. I take pride in my identity as a Plains daughter.
- Which of the following is the most accurate restatement of the author's position?
- The presence of people has enriched the Plains habitat.
- Farming has improved the soil of the Plains.
- Farming has eroded the natural beauty of the Plains.
- Farming has chemically polluted the Plains.
- The argument in this paragraph is based primarily on
- facts of history and statistical studies.
- facts derived from the author's personal observations.
- feelings the author has picked up from personal experience.
- feelings passed down to the author by her ancestors.
- From context, it can be determined that the word mercantile has something to do with
At 2:00 A.M. on Monday, July 3rd, three boys from the Iowa Technical Institute were stopped by police officers when the officers saw the boys running down Elm Street. According to Officer Chet Fairfax, the boys were stopped because it was past curfew and because their behavior was suspect. The officers took down the boys' names and addresses and ordered them to return to their dorms at the Institute. The following morning, at 8:00 A.M., Sally Upton, a clerk at Wayne's Bootery on 19th Avenue, was going through her regular shop-opening routine when she noticed that the window of the storage room was broken. As she'd been warned to do by her boss, Wayne Hemphill, she left the store immediately and went across the street to the gas station, where she used the phone to call police. Upon going through the store with Wayne Hemphill and Sally Upton, the police found that over a dozen pairs of men's running shoes had been stolen. The cash register had also been jimmied open, but Hemphill reported that it had been emptied of cash the night before. Because the boys from the Iowa Technical Institute had been stopped within two blocks of the store the night before, police took them in for questioning. According to police records, one of the boys was wearing brand-new Reebok running shoes identical to the shoes missing from Wayne's Bootery. All three boys were arrested and remanded to the juvenile court.
Now let me ask you this: Why is it that every time a crime happens in this town, the boys at the Iowa Technical Institute are automatically presumed guilty of it? I've lived here for 40 years and I've worked at the facility, which, as everyone knows, has had its share of troubled youth. But I also know that the majority of Iowa Tech grads go on to become upstanding citizens. If there weren't so many rich people living in Gillette, people who made their money in the city and moved here thinking they would have all the advantages of small town America with none of the disadvantages, then we wouldn't have this continual persecution of the boys at the Institute. Most of them come from poor families who can't afford brand-name shoes, but that doesn't mean that just because one of them is wearing a new pair of sneakers, they were stolen.
- The main topic of this letter to the editor of a daily newspaper is
- unfair treatment of students of the Iowa Technical Institute.
- the theft of shoes from Wayne's Bootery.
- poor investigative practices of the town police department.
- the erosion of the quality of life in the town since wealthy people began moving in.
- According to police, why were the boys arrested?
- They had been seen in the area the night before and one of them was wearing shoes identical to those stolen.
- They were students of the Iowa Technical Institute and therefore automatically suspect.
- They had been running and were out well past curfew.
- All of the above statements describe the reasons given by police.
- Gillette is
- the city where the newly arrived rich people used to live.
- the town the three boys are originally from.
- the town in which the theft occurred.
- the neighboring town where the Institute is located.
- Which of the following statements accurately portrays the content of this letter?
- The first paragraph is primarily opinion, while the second is primarily fact.
- The first paragraph is primarily fact, while the second is primarily opinion.
- Both paragraphs are primarily factual.
- Both paragraphs are primarily opinion.
- In casting blame on the new, rich residents of the town, the correspondent offers
- convincing evidence.
- unconvincing evidence.
- some convincing and some unconvincing evidence.
- no evidence.
- Paragraph 2 of this letter is organized
- by order of importance, with the most important idea presented first and the remainder of the paragraph supporting it.
- chronologically, with points of the argument relating directly to the order of events.
- inductively, with the supporting ideas coming first, and the main assertion coming in the ending.
- in no apparent order, with the ideas being presented solely as they occurred to the author.
- It was discovered that shoes were missing when
- Sally Upton opened the store.
- police questioned the boys.
- police investigated the crime scene.
- Sally Upton and Wayne Hemphill did inventory later that week.
- Which of the following statements best corresponds with the views expressed in the letter?
- The boys attending the Institute are mostly poor and should be forgiven for stealing the shoes.
- Just because one of the boys was wearing shoes like those stolen doesn't mean he and the other boys are guilty.
- Crime has increased in the town since the arrival of the new, rich residents.
- Because no cash was stolen, no crime significant enough to warrant arrests was committed.
(excerpt from a fact sheet put out by the U.S. Administration for Children and Families)
Domestic violence encompasses all acts of violence against women within the context of family or intimate relationships. It is an issue of increasing concern because it has a negative effect on all family members, especially children. Domestic violence is not confined to any one socioeconomic, ethnic, religious, racial, or age group. It is the leading cause of injury to women in the United States, where they are more likely to be assaulted, injured, raped, or killed by a male partner than by any other type of assailant. Statistics show that 29 percent of all violence against women by a single offender is committed by an intimate—a husband, ex-husband, boyfriend, or ex-boyfriend. Accurate information on the extent of domestic violence is difficult to obtain because of extensive underreporting. However, it is estimated that as many as four million instances of domestic abuse against women occur annually in the United States. About one-fourth of all hospital emergency room visits by women result from domestic assaults.
This violence takes a devastating toll on children who are exposed to its cruelty. Over three million children witness parental violence every year. Children whose mothers are victims of wife battery are twice as likely to be abused themselves as those children whose mothers are not victims of abuse. When children witness violence in the home, they have been found to suffer many of the symptoms that are experienced by children who are directly abused.
- According to this fact sheet, the term domestic violence applies to acts of violence
- occurring within a family dwelling.
- suffered by women.
- suffered by women and children.
- not outlawed by a criminal code.
- Jennifer, a girl of 14, has witnessed her mother being beaten by her father. According to the fact sheet, what might the result be in terms of her behavior?
- She would grow up to be an abuser herself.
- She would become an adult victim of abuse.
- She would begin acting abusively toward her mother.
- She would have symptoms as if she herself had been abused.
- It is unknown exactly how much domestic violence occurs, because
- victims often don't contact authorities.
- false accusations lead to faulty statistics.
- it is often confused with other types of violence.
- statistical surveys have been irregularly performed.
- This violence takes a devastating toll on children who are exposed to its cruelty. An alternative way of saying this would be This violence hurts children who see it. Describe the tone in this alternative in comparison with the original.
- The tone of the alternative is less formal than that of the original.
- The tone of the alternative is more formal than that of the original.
- The tone of the alternative is not as direct as that of the original.
- The tone of the alternative is not as specific as that of the original.
- The subject of domestic violence can be quite emotional because of the images it arouses. Overall, this treatise on domestic violence
- argues emotionally, depending mainly on scare tactics to make its points.
- argues emotionally, relying solely on hearsay and personal opinion.
- argues logically, proving its assertions with facts.
- argues logically, but doesn't prove its assertions with facts.
- The author of this treatise is thinking of writing another piece on domestic violence for a popular interest magazine. Which of the following stylistic choices might make the piece more suitable for a popular market?
- more statistics describing the prevalence of domestic violence
- a more technical and expansive definition of the term domestic violence
- a detailed account of federal legislation passed regarding domestic violence
- first-person accounts describing actual incidents of domestic violence
- Coats and Car Seats: A Lethal Combination?
- Kindergarten Sight Words List
- Child Development Theories
- Signs Your Child Might Have Asperger's Syndrome
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