Characteristics of Fluent Versus Nonfluent Readers
Many individuals with dyslexia are considered "dysfluent," or not fluent in reading due to issues with automatically recognizing words and decoding phonological components. The table below summarizes the characteristics of fluent versus nonfluent readers and provides recommendations for strategies to improve reading fluency.
|Fluent Readers||Why||Nonfluent Readers (Many Dyslexics)||What to Do|
|Decode effortlessly, with automaticity and with average reading rates or better for age and/or grade level.||Fluent readers read more, more extensively, and with a variety of printed materials.||Decode laboriously, without automaticity and with lower than expected reading rates for age/or grade level.||
|Place a reading emphasis on comprehending words within the context of phrases, sentences, and paragraphs.||Fluent readers have acquired a variety of word recognition strategies that make word reading for the most part effortless.||Place a reading emphasis on identifying or decoding words in isolation before discerning meaning because of word recognition difficulties.||
|Have extensive sight vocabularies.||Fluent readers have more exposure to print and reading practice.||Have limited sight vocabularies as compared to fluent readers of similar age or developmental level.||
|Are able to effectively handle miscues or errors in word reading.||Fluent readers have acquired a variety of strategies for fixing miscues or errors in word reading.||Often rely on one or two "fix-it" strategies when problem-solving during word-recognition.||
|Can effectively decode and comprehend text simultaneously.||Fluent readers effectively key in on main ideas and important information when reading; they can accurately summarize or paraphrase readings; they are able to self-monitor comprehension and organize information learned from reading as needed.||Experience a diminished ability to comprehend text because more cognitive energies are spent on decoding and identifying words.||
|Adjust reading rates according to reading demands.||With frequent and extensive reading practice and feedback, fluent readers become flexible readers, adjusting reading rates as needed.||Have difficulty adjusting reading rates according to reading purpose and text difficulty.||
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