Social Studies Exam Tips and Strategies: GED Test Prep (page 6)
You have reviewed what you need to know for the GED Social Studies Exam. Now you will learn some specific tips and strategies to use on the exam.
On the GED Social Studies Exam, you will read short passages, varying in length from 50 to 200 words, and then answer a multiple-choice question or set of questions concerning the passage. Reading passages may be taken from a number of sources, often drawn from a workplace or academic context. The exam uses both primary sources, such as firsthand historical or practical documents, and secondary sources, such as excerpts from editorials, news articles, or news magazines.
Be an Active Reader
When you read social studies material, you use a similar set of skills as you do when you read other kinds of text. Reading is an active exercise in which you interact with the text, paying close to attention to the key thoughts and details of a passage. Try skimming a passage first so that you can discern its organization and get clues about its main ideas. If you read at a slow pace initially, you may lose the overall idea in too many details. Look to see if a reading excerpt is broken into sections, if there are any helpful topic headings, and what key terms are boldfaced or highlighted. After you finish skimming, go back and read more closely. This time, ask yourself questions as you read to help you better understand and recall the passage: What is the main point of the text? How did the author support his or her point? As you read, consider making quick notes on a separate piece of paper to help you highlight important words or ideas.
Where Is the Main Idea?
To show that you understand the concepts presented in social studies material, the exam will sometimes ask you to find the main idea of a passage. A main idea is a general statement that contains all of the ideas within a passage. It is an author's main point.
To locate a main idea, carefully read the topic sentence of the passage. The first sentence may contain the overall idea that an author wishes to express. However, sometimes an author may build up to his or her point, in which case you may find the main idea in the last sentence of the introductory paragraph or even the last sentence of the entire passage. Students often confuse the topic or subject of a passage—that is, what the passage is about—with the main idea. The main idea is what the author intends to say about the subject. For example, read the following paragraph:
The fertile black soil of the Nile River Valley in northeastern Africa gave rise to the agriculture based society of ancient Egypt. For more than 3,000 years beginning as early as 5,000 B.C., this civilization flourished. Its cultural contributions include basic concepts of arithmetic and geometry, a calendar, jewelry, pottery, statues, the pyramids at Giza, underground burial chambers, and the mummification process. The Egyptian script, called hieroglyphics, is a form of writing based on pictures. The Rosetta Stone, a granite slab inscribed in 196 B.C. with three identical texts, aided scholars in deciphering hieroglyphics.
Note that a statement might be too general to best describe the main idea of a passage. For example, look at the following choices. Which best describes the main idea of the selection?
- Early civilizations often developed near a water source.
- Before deciphering the Rosetta Stone, scholars could not read Egyptian hieroglyphics.
- Ancient Egypt was a sophisticated civilization that made many contributions to human culture.
- The most important of Egyptian contributions was a written script called hieroglyphics.
- Scholars have found similarities between heiroglyphics and ancient Greek.
Although choice a is a true statement, it is too general to express the main idea of the paragraph. Choice b is also a true statement but is too specific to describe the passage's main idea. Choice d is an opinion that is not supported by the details of the passage. Choice e is not supported by the passage. Choice c best describes the paragraph's main idea.
To practice finding the main idea, ask yourself some of the following questions when you read:
- What is this passage about?
- What is the author's purpose?
- If you were asked to choose a headline or title for the passage, what would you choose?
- Which sentence contains all of the ideas expressed in the passage?
Finding Supporting Ideas
After you have determined the main idea of a passage, the next step is to find the details or facts that an author has provided to support his or her main position. While a main idea is a general statement, a supporting idea is a statement that provides specific information. For example, read the next paragraph from a U.S. Census Bureau report:
The growth of human population has been, is now, and in the future will be almost entirely determined in the world's less-developed countries (LDCs). Ninety-nine percent of global natural increase—the difference between numbers of births and numbers of deaths—now occurs in the developing regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
The topic of this paragraph is world population. The main idea of the passage is what the writer is saying about world population. In this case, the first sentence expresses the main idea: The growth of human population has been, is now, and in the future will be almost entirely determined in the world's less-developed countries (LDCs). The next sentence offers specific information that supports the main idea. It offers a specific fact in the form of a statistic (99% of global natural increase) and gives details about which areas of the world the passage is talking about (developing regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America).
These words and phrases are often used to introduce a detail or idea that supports an author's position:
- for example
- for instance
- one reason is
- in one case
- in particular
To practice locating supporting ideas while you read, skim the text and look for the following:
- examples that bolster the main idea
- contrasting arguments that clarify the author's point
- arguments for the author's position
- details that answer what, when, where, why, or how
The GED Social Studies Exam will ask you to answer questions based on details supplied in a passage. However, the answer choices will not present the details in the same words—they may paraphrase the information, which means to restate it in different terms. To strengthen your critical thinking skills, when you are reading, pause and think about what the material is stating. Then try putting it in your own words. This will help you better understand reading material and increase your ability to recognize the same material even if it is written in new terms. For example, read the following passage.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement between Canada, Mexico, and the United States to remove tariffs and trade barriers from goods made and sold on the continent. Before the pact was approved in 1993, lawmakers and special-interest groups fiercely debated the issue. Labor groups believed that NAFTA would make it easier for U.S. businesses to move their production plants to Mexico to take advantage of cheap labor.
Environmental groups opposed NAFTA because they felt that pollution regulations would be more difficult to enforce.
Think about how you would rephrase this information in your own words. Now answer the practice question.
- Supporters of NAFTA were not challenged.
- Opponents of NAFTA wanted to keep duties and other tariffs on U.S. goods shipped to Mexico.
- Labor groups were afraid that U.S. jobs would be lost.
- Canada and the United States never approved NAFTA.
- Labor groups believe it is cheaper to produce goods in the United States.
According to the information in the paragraph, which of the following is true?
Choice c is correct. It restates the following sentence from the passage: Labor groups believed that NAFTA would make it easier for U.S. businesses to move their plants to Mexico to take advantage of cheap labor. Choices a and d are incorrect statements. Choice b may be true, but is not mentioned in the paragraph.
While restating information tests your ability to know what a text says, making inferences about a passage demonstrates your ability to know what a text means. Sometimes an author may not explicitly state his or her main idea or offer a conclusion. You must infer the author's meaning. Being able to make inferences is an important critical thinking skill. To figure out an unstated idea or conclusion, look at what the author has stated. Ask yourself these questions:
- What can I conclude based on the information provided?
- What is the author suggesting?
- What will be the outcome?
- Would the same outcome occur in another setting?
Read the following excerpt from Elizabeth Cady Stanton's paper, "Self-Government the Best Means of Self-Development," which she presented to the United States Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage at a March 7, 1884 hearing. Then answer the practice question.
"They who say that women do not desire the right of suffrage, that they prefer masculine domination to self-government, falsify every page of history, every fact in human experience. It has taken the whole power of the civil and canon law to hold woman in the subordinate position which it is said she willingly accepts."
- Women do not want the right to vote.
- Women need to have access to education before they are allowed the right to vote.
- Lawmakers and religious leaders have been coercive in maintaining women's status as "second-class" citizens.
- Women can still be influential citizens without the right to vote.
- Women willingly accept their subordinate position.
What is the author of this passage suggesting?
Statements a, d, and e are incorrect. Elizabeth Cady Stanton is making a counterargument against the position that women do not want the right to vote. Statement b is not supported by the details given in the passage. Statement c is the best answer. Stanton uses strong language to make her argument for women's suffrage. She says that "canon law," which refers to the laws of the Christian Church, and "civil law," which refers to the laws of the United States, have been used to keep women in a "subordinate position."
Looking for Proof
Just because something is in print does not mean that the reader must believe it or take it as fact. Most written material has some bias. Sometimes a writer's beliefs may unknowingly affect how he or she writes about an event. In other instances, a writer purposefully tries to shape your reaction and opinion. For example, a writer may present only one perspective of an event or include only facts that support his or her position. One crucial thinking skill that the GED Social Studies Exam will measure is your ability to make judgments about what you read. As you read, you will need to challenge the author's assumptions and positions, tell the difference between fact and opinion, and look for complete and accurate information.
Fact versus Opinion
A fact is a statement that can be verified by a reliable source. Because all sources have some bias, you must decide whether you think a source presents accurate, researched information. Examples of reliable sources of information may include official government documents, encyclopedias, or well-documented studies. Here is an example of a factual statement:
The U.S. population is growing older—in fact, adults over age 65 are the fastest-growing segment of today's population.
This sentence could be supported by the recent national census.
An opinion is a statement of the beliefs or feelings of a person or group. It cannot be proven by a reliable source. An opinion is a judgment that may or may not be true. It includes predictions of the future because they cannot be proven at the current time. The following sentence represents an opinion:
The population boom among elderly Americans will create a future healthcare crisis.
This statement represents a belief or speculation about the future. Others may disagree with this prediction. Regardless, it cannot be proven, so it is a statement of opinion, not a statement of fact.
Be alert to the common words that may introduce a statement of opinion:
Propaganda refers to techniques that try to influence your opinion, emotions, and attitudes to benefit an organization or individual. Propaganda uses language that targets your emotions—your fears, beliefs, values, prejudices—instead of appealing to reason or critical thinking. Advertising, media, and political campaigns use propaganda techniques to influence you. To detect propaganda, ask yourself the following questions about written material:
- Who does it benefit?
- What are its sources?
- What is the purpose of the text?
Here are six common propaganda techniques:
- Bandwagon. The basic message of bandwagon propaganda is "everyone else is doing something, so you should be, too." It appeals to the desire to join the crowd or be on the winning team. Phrases like "Americans buy more of our brand than any other brand" or "the brand that picky parents choose" are examples of the bandwagon technique. To evaluate a message, ask these questions:
- Does this program or policy serve my particular interests?
- What is the evidence for or against it?
- Common Man. This approach tries to convince you that its message is "just plain old common sense." Politicians and advertisers often speak in an everyday language and use common jokes and phrases to present themselves as one "of the people," thereby appealing to their audience. For example, a presidential candidate campaigning in New Hampshire may dress in a plaid shirt and chop wood or visit a mill in order to look like an ordinary citizen. To avoid the common-man technique, ask yourself these questions:
- What ideas is the person presenting—separate from the person's image or language?
- What are the facts?
- Euphemisms. Instead of emotionally loaded language that rouses its audience, these terms "soften" an unpleasant reality and make it less emotional. Terms that soften the nature of war are an example. A historical instance of euphemism is when in the 1940s, the U.S. government renamed the War Department to the Department of Defense. Stay alert to euphemisms. What facts are being softened or hidden?
- Generalities. This approach uses words and phrases that evoke deep emotions. Examples of generalities are honor, peace, freedom, or home. These words carry strong associations for most people. By using these terms, a writer can appeal to your emotions so that you will accept his or her message without evaluating it. Generalities are vague so that you will supply your own interpretations and not ask further questions. An example might be, "The United States must further restrict immigration in order to preserve freedom and liberty."
Try to challenge what you read or hear. Ask yourself:
- What does the generality really mean?
- Has the author used the generality to sway my emotions?
- If I take the generality out of the sentence, what are the merits of the idea?
- Does the label have any real connection to the idea being presented?
- If I take away the label, what are the merits of the idea?
- Does the public figure have any expert knowledge about this subject?
- Without the testimonial, what are the merits of the message?
Only Half the Story
Another way that a writer may slant information is to omit evidence. A writer may try to convince you to accept his or her interpretation of an event or issue by giving you only one side of the story and by leaving out contrasting facts or perspectives. When this is done deliberately, it is a propaganda technique called card stacking. When you read, evaluate whether the author has presented different points of view and offered balanced evidence. For instance, a campaign ad will certainly highlight a candidate's positive qualities while leaving out unfavorable characteristics. Campaign ads might also target an opponent, presenting negative qualities and omitting positive ones, thereby creating a distorted perspective.
The GED Social Studies Exam will ask you to identify the relationships between events. Often, historical events are connected to situations that came before them. When you are considering the causes of an event, be aware that multiple causes can create one effect, just as one cause can have many effects. Sometimes what is considered a cause can be controversial. In the following passage, legislators and criminologists argue over the causes that might have contributed to a drop in the youth crime rate.
Juvenile crime has reached its lowest national level since 1988. The number of arrests for juvenile murder has also dropped. It is now at the lowest level since 1966. Backers of "adult time" legislation—"get-tough" laws that send violent teenagers to adult prison—believe that fear of imprisonment is stopping juveniles from committing crimes. However, the decrease in crime often started before these laws took effect. Some criminologists believe a drop in crack cocaine use and gun carrying is the more likely cause. These experts argue that as the crack market dropped off in the mid-1990s, fewer teens were dealing drugs and fewer were carrying guns to protect themselves. Police also increased their efforts to enforce gun laws. With fewer young people carrying weapons, the teen murder rate dropped.
According to the criminologists mentioned in the passage, which of the following is NOT a cause of the drop in juvenile crime?
- fewer gun-carrying juveniles
- enforced gun laws
- fear of jail time
- fewer drug dealers on the street
- police presence
The correct choice is c. In the passage, criminologists argue that "adult time" laws have not had an effect on the decrease in youth crime. They believe that choices a, b, d, and e are multiple causes of the drop in crime.
Social Studies Key Words
As with any type of study, the social sciences use specific terms and vocabulary. While you are studying for the exam, use a dictionary to look up unfamiliar terms. However, even if you do not recognize a word, you might be able to figure out its meaning. The parts of a word—prefix, root, and suffix—can offer clues to its meaning. A number of terms used in social studies derive from Latin or Greek. Knowing some useful word parts can help you make an educated guess about the meaning of a word. Review these common Latin and Greek word parts:
Using the chart, isolate the word parts of the following words:
Now you can guess what they mean. Monotheism is the belief that there is only one God. Autocrat means someone who rules by him- or herself: a ruler with unlimited power. Democracy is a government in which the people rule either directly or indirectly through representatives.
Context—the words and sentences surrounding a term—can also offer clues to its meaning. Sometimes a word will be followed by a phrase that restates and explains its meaning.
Example: President Truman instituted a set of domestic programs that were later labeled the Fair Deal; these policies continued and developed Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
In this sentence, you can determine what the term Fair Deal means from the text that surrounds it. The Fair Deal is both "a set of domestic programs" and a continuation of "Roosevelt's New Deal programs."
A contrast or opposing point of view can also offer clues to the meaning of a term. The following sentence uses the term bipartisanship:
Example: Despite the president's plea for bipartisanship, Republican senators accused Democratic leaders of petty politics.
The sentence tells you that the Republicans are making accusations about the actions of the Democrats. The two groups are not in agreement. In the sentence, the term bipartisanship refers to the opposite. So, you can guess that it refers to the two groups when they are in agreement.
Tools and Methods in Social Science
Social scientists use polls in order to learn the attitudes and opinions of a population. Polls are surveys that ask people about the way they live and what they believe. One method of polling is called sampling, in which a polltaker questions a small part of a group so that he or she can speculate about the opinions of the whole group. In this way, polltakers can make accurate predictions. However, sometimes polls are inaccurate. A historic polling failure occurred in 1948, when polling groups predicted that presidential candidate Harry S. Truman would lose the election. In the 2000 presidential election, the narrow margin in some states between candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore made it difficult for polling organizations to make predictions.
In addition to forecasting voting patterns in elections, polls can determine the opinions of groups on a whole range of issues from consumer trends to healthcare and education. Polltakers may use personal interviews, telephone interviews, or mail-in questionnaires. The data from these methods are then tabulated and evaluated.
After social scientists gather information from surveys or studies, they can organize the information into the form of numbers, or statistics. Statistics can help social scientists interpret information. They use statistics to follow trends in global or national rates of population, education level, housing status, crime, or another category. They can also use statistics to make comparisons between groups.
Example: The U.S. Census Bureau found that 47% of U.S. citizens between the ages of 18 and 24 voted in the November 2004 election, while 72% of citizens 55 and older voted.
From this information, a social scientist can hypothesize about the causes and effects of this age difference in people who vote.
To gather information about the past, social scientists and historians use a wide range of sources. Primary sources are firsthand records of the past that include letters, legal records, business records, diaries, oral histories, photographs, posters, maps, or artifacts. Secondary sources are accounts of an event made some time after the event took place. These include newspaper articles, pamphlets, books, or interviews. Together, these clues about the past make up the historical record.
When reading historical sources, you need to use the same analysis skills that you would apply to a present-day source. Here are some basic questions to ask when you are evaluating the reliability of a historical source:
- Consider the purpose of the author. Was the source intended for a private or public audience?
- Did the author witness the event or rely on others' accounts?
- Did the author express an opinion? What was his or her point of view?
- Can you verify the source with other evidence?
- How much time elapsed after the event before the author made his or her account? (The sooner an account is made, the more reliable a source tends to be. Also, the nearer the witness is in proximity to the event, the more reliable. Social scientists and historians call this the time and place rule.)
Social scientists often use tables, charts, and graphs to arrange information. Charts and tables divide figures into columns. They organize information so that you can see the relationships between facts. Graphs visually display information so that you can interpret facts more easily. Graphs include tables, bar graphs, line graphs, and circle graphs.
Tables arrange figures (numbers) into columns in order to show a relationship between them. To read a table, begin by noting the title of the table (the title runs across the top of the table). Next, read each column heading. Now you can locate facts and begin to discern the relationships between them.
Exercise 1 (see answers below)
Look at the table, "World Energy Consumption, 1970–2020," and then answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
- How much energy did the world consume in 1980?
- What is the table's estimate of world energy consumption for the year 2015?
- What is the trend of the world's energy consumption?
- In which five-year period in the past was the increase in the world's energy consumption the greatest?
- Between 1970 and 2020, how many times will the world's consumption rate grow, according to the table's estimate?
A bar graph is one way to present facts visually. A bar graph features a vertical axis (running up and down on the left-hand side of the graph) and a horizontal axis (running along the bottom of the graph). The graph represents quantities in strips or bars. To construct a bar graph from the table, "World Energy Consumption, 1970–2020,"mark the five-year increments on the bottom horizontal axis and the units of energy consumed (by increments of 100 quadrillion Btu) on the vertical axis. By representing the table's data in a bar graph, you can visualize the world's energy consumption trend more easily.
Line graphs compare two or more things and help you visualize trends at a glance. Like the bar graph, a line graph features a horizontal and vertical axis. Look at the graph, "Immigrants Admitted: Fiscal Years 1900–2000." The vertical axis marks the number of immigrants (in thousands). The horizontal axis measures each decade between 1900 and 2000. A point for each year is plotted on the coordinate plane and a line connects each point. By using a line graph, you can readily see immigration trends over the century.
Look at the line graph, "Immigrants Admitted to the United States," and then answer the following questions.
- What was the general trend of U.S. immigration between 1950 and 1990?
- In which decades was the lowest point of U.S. immigration in the last century?
- When did the highest point occur?
Circle graphs, also called pie charts, display information so that you can see relationships between parts and a whole. The entire circle in the graph represents 100% of something. The graph divides the whole into parts, or pie slices. To understand a circle graph, read the title of the graph. What does the graph represent? Read all other headings and labels. What does each portion of the circle represent? Now you are ready to see how the parts of information relate. Review the following circle graph and then answer the practice questions.
Use the circle graph "The Federal Government Dollar" to answer the following questions.
- What percentage of the federal budget comes from social insurance receipts and corporate income taxes?
- What is the biggest source of income for the federal government?
- Which program receives the largest share of the national budget?
- What proportion of the budget goes to paying off debt?
Maps are printed or drawn representations of a geographic area. Social scientists use different types of maps to understand the natural or cultural facts about an area. Maps can visually display many kinds of information, such as the physical features of the land, political boundaries between nations, or population densities.
Topographic maps show the physical features of land, including land elevations and depressions, water depth, rivers, forests, mountains, or human-made cities and roads.
Political maps display political divisions and borders.
Special-purpose maps can depict a wide range of information about an area, from average rainfall, crop distribution, or population density, to migration patterns of people.
To read a map, carefully review each of the following:
- Title—describes what the map represents
- Legend, or key—a table or list that explains the symbols used in a map
- Latitude and longitude—latitude refers to the lines on a map that are parallel to the equator; longitude refers to lines parallel to the prime meridian that run north to south through Greenwich, England. These lines help locate specific areas on a map.
- Scale—shows the map's proportion in relation to the area it represents. For example, on a topographic map, the scale might show the distance on the map that equals a mile or kilometer on land.
Review the special-purpose map below, paying careful attention to its details, and then answer the practice questions.
- What is the title of the map?
- What do the four shades of gray indicate in the legend?
- How much did the population change in this decade in the state of California?
- Which states experienced the largest population change in this decade?
- Which areas experienced a loss?
A regular feature in American newspapers since the early nineteenth century, political cartoons use satirical humor to comment on a current event. Their purpose is to express an opinion—the political point of view of the cartoonist or the newspaper or magazine in which they appear. A cartoon will often focus and simplify a single issue or event so that readers can easily grasp its message. Cartoons employ few words, often just enough to make their point clear. They sometimes use caricature, a technique in which the cartoonist deliberately exaggerates the features of well-known people (often politicians) to make fun of them.
Because of their emotional appeal, political cartoons can be effective tools in swaying public opinion. The power of political cartoons was demonstrated in 1869 when Harper's Weekly cartoonist Thomas Nast used his art to help end the corrupt Boss Tweed Ring in New York City. Nast first introduced symbols that we still use today: the elephant for the Republican Party and the donkey for the Democratic Party.
Interpreting Political Cartoons
To understand and interpret a cartoon, you can use the same critical thinking skills that you employ when finding meaning in a written text. This political cartoon is from December 9, 2002. It refers to the United States's demand for weapons inspections in Iraq. Review the cartoon and ask yourself these basic questions:
- What are the details or symbols used in the cartoon? Did the cartoonist use a caricature?
- What is happening in the cartoon?
- What comparisons or contrasts are depicted in the cartoon?
- Political cartoons express an opinion. What is the point of view of the cartoonist?
- What is the historical context of the cartoon? Historical cartoons may be more difficult for today's readers to interpret. You will need to consider the conditions of the time period in which the cartoon was created.
Now use the political cartoon to select the best answer to the following question.
- The U.S. government believed in 2002 that Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction.
- The United States believes in a pacifist approach.
- In 2002, the U.S. government was hypocritical in its demand that Iraq disarm its weapons of mass destruction.
- Saddam Hussein was a leader who could be trusted.
- George Bush personally inspected Iraq for weapons of mass destruction.
Which statement best describes the main idea of the cartoon?
Photographs are powerful visual documents of personal or public life. In addition to recording a specific time period or event, they are effective tools of persuasion. In the nineteenth century, William H. Jackson's photographs of the Yellowstone region were influential in persuading the U.S. Congress to designate the area a national park, journalist Jacob Riis's photographs of New York City slums led to needed social reform, and Lewis Hine's shocking images of children working in factories resulted in the passage of child-protection legislation in 1916. Photographs are also an important part of the historic record. Photographers like James Van Der Zee, who chronicled life in Harlem for 60 years, contribute information about a past culture.
When you look at a photograph, use the same critical thinking skills you would when reading a written passage or other type of graphic. Does the photograph express a main idea or theme? What is the supporting evidence? Ask yourself the following questions:
- What is happening in the photo?
- What details can I learn from the image?
- What do I think is the message that the photographer is trying to express?
- Is there a caption or title to the photo?
- What is the historical context of the image?
Look at the following photograph of working children in an Indiana factory at the beginning of the twentieth century.
- Laws in the early 1900s protected children from long working hours.
- The photographer believed that children could make significant contributions to the economy.
- Children in 1908 worked in occupations where they would not be permitted today.
- The Progressives fought to create labor laws that would protect children.
- Children should work to contribute to their families.
Which of the following conclusions can you draw from the photo?
The following resources can help you expand your knowledge of the kinds of material covered on the GED Social Studies Exam. At the time of publication, these sites were accurate.
- Website of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics with information about U.S. employment and unemployment rates, consumer spending, productivity, and other statistics.
- Official U.S. Census Bureau website—provides statistics from the 2000 census.
- Educational website operated by the Dirksen Congressional Center—offers a guide to Congress and posts historical materials.
- Website of the National Constitution Center (NCC), a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization established by Congress in 1988—gives information about fundamental principles of the Constitution and offers basic research tools.
- Official website of the United States Federal Reserve—includes consumer information about personal finances.
- Offers statistics and maps from more than 100 federal agencies.
- Official Internet portal to all U.S. government information with links to agencies of federal, state, local, and tribal governments—provides frequently requested federal forms and information for citizens, businesses, and government employees.
- Online world atlas with geographic, political, and cultural information.
- Covers American and world history topics and includes links to primary historical documents.
- Website of the International Labour Organization with information about working conditions around the globe.
- Historic collections from the U.S. Library of Congress—includes primary resources about the history and culture of the United States.
- Website of National Council for the Social Studies—includes links to teaching resources on a wide range of social studies themes.
- Offers an overview of the Supreme Court—its history, procedures, and traditions—and transcripts from Supreme Court cases.
- Website of the United Nations—includes information and maps about economic and social development, human rights, and peace and security issues around the world.
- 285 quadrillion Btu
- 552 quadrillion Btu
- The trend of world energy consumption is increasing. You can answer this question by simply observing that the numbers in the right-hand column are increasing.
- The period between 2000 and 2005—consumption increased by 57 quadrillion Btu. The years in the left-hand column are divided by five-year increments (except one). To answer this question, find the greatest difference between each of the first eight rows in the right-hand column.
- About three times, from 207 to 612 quadrillion Btu. Divide the quantity predicted for the year 2020 by the quantity consumed in 1970.
- The trend was increasing. Even though the graph plots small rises and falls in immigration, between 1950 and 1990 the plotted line increases overall.
- Between the years 1930 and 1950—the line graph shows a "valley" where immigration rates decreased in these decades.
- The year 1991 is the highest "peak" on the graph.
- individual income taxes
- Social Security
- 19% to the Medicare and Medicaid programs
- Percent Change in Population for U.S. States: 1990 to 1999
- black—highest gain; dark gray—average gain; medium gray—smallest gain; and light gray—loss
- between 9.7% and 16.8%
- Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Georgia
- North Dakota, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Washington, D.C.
- The correct choice is c. By exaggerating the power and force of the U.S. aircraft, the cartoonist suggests that the United States is developing its military force while at the same time demanding that other nations (Iraq, in this case) halt any efforts to do the same. The cartoonist uses the symbol of the American flag to show that the fighter plane belongs to the United States, and he uses the initial "W" to convey that its pilot is President George W. Bush.
- The correct answer is c. This is the only choice supported by the caption and photo. The photo contradicts choice a—clearly, laws did not protect children from working as late as midnight. The photo does not support choice b—the image does not express a positive opinion about child labor. Choice d is true—the Progressives did seek to heighten awareness about working children, but the photo does not supply evidence of their involvement. Choice e represents an opinion.
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