Science Concepts and Processes: GED Test Prep
This article will review some of the unifying concepts and processes in science. You will learn the questions and themes that are common to each of the scientific disciplines and how scientists seek to answer those questions.
Whether they are chemists, biologists, physicists, or geologists, all scientists seek to organize the knowledge and observations they collect. They look for evidence and develop models to provide explanations for their observations. Scientists depend heavily on measurement and developed devices and instruments for measuring different properties of matter and energy. Scientists also use units to make the quantities they measure understandable to other scientists. Questions that come up in every science are:
- What causes change?
- What causes stability?
- How does something evolve?
- How does something reach equilibrium?
- How is form related to function?
Systems, Order, and Organization
What happens when an Internet search produces too many results? Clearly, having some results is better than having none, but having too many can make it difficult to find the necessary information quickly. If scientists didn't systematically organize and order information, looking for or finding a piece of data or making a comparison would be as difficult as looking for one specific book in a huge library in which the books are randomly shelved. In every science knowledge is grouped into an orderly manner.
In biology, an organism is classified into a domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Members of the same species are the most similar. All people belong to the same species. People and monkeys belong to the same order. People and fish belong to the same kingdom, and people and plants share the same domain. This is an example of hierarchical classification—each level is included in the levels previously listed. Each species is part of an order, and each order is part of a kingdom, which is a part of a domain.
Another example of hierarchical classification is your address in the galaxy. It would include your house number, street, city, state, country, continent, planet, star system, and galaxy.
Here is another example of organization in biology. Each organism is made of cells. Many cells make up a tissue. Several tissues make up an organ. Several organs make up an organ system.
In chemistry, atoms are sorted by atomic number in the periodic table. Atoms that have similar properties are grouped.
Scientists also classify periods of time since Earth's formation 4.6 billion years ago, based on the major events in those eras. Time on Earth is divided into the following eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The eras are further divided into periods, and the periods into epochs.
Add your own comment
- Kindergarten Sight Words List
- The Five Warning Signs of Asperger's Syndrome
- What Makes a School Effective?
- Child Development Theories
- 10 Fun Activities for Children with Autism
- Why is Play Important? Social and Emotional Development, Physical Development, Creative Development
- Should Your Child Be Held Back a Grade? Know Your Rights
- Bullying in Schools
- First Grade Sight Words List
- Test Problems: Seven Reasons Why Standardized Tests Are Not Working