Visual-Processing Difficulties: Typical Reading and Spelling Patterns
Below are typical problems students with visual-learning disabilities encounter when reading and spelling.
- Confuse letters that differ in directionality (b-d, p-q)
- Confuse words that can be reversed (was-saw)
- Limited sight vocabulary; unrecognizable from word configuration
- Lose place reading, especially when moving gaze from the end of the line on the right side to the beginning of the next line on the left side
- Omit letters and words because they were not visually noted
- Insert and substitute letters erroneously as well as omit them
- Have difficulty learning irregular words that cannot be sounded out phonetically
- May find it easier to read words when learning to spell them first
- Sometimes experience difficulty recalling the shape of letters when writing them
- Spell phonetically but inaccurately (cof-cough; bisnis-business)
- Can spell difficult phonetic words but not simple irregular phonetically spelled words
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