What Effect Does Oil have on Birds?
Middle and High School
Difficulty of Project
Less than $50
A molted feather obtained from a chicken or other pet bird. A microscope can be borrowed or purchased. Other materials are readily found at home or can be purchased.
Approximate Time Required to Complete the Project
One day to one week
Lean about what makes a bird waterproof (hint – it is not the oil gland), and how oil affects a bird’s waterproofing. With more in depth research, the student will learn how else oil affects the bird, internally and externally.
Materials and Equipment / Ingredients
- Molted feather must be from a chicken or other pet bird. Do not collect wild bird feathers, as this is illegal.
- Vegetable oil
- Display board
- Photographs of oiled birds
- How do feathers make a bird waterproof?
- What is the structure of a feather when viewed under a microscope?
- What does the uropygial gland do for feathers?
- What species of birds have a reduced or completely lack a uropygial gland? What type of habitat do they live in?
- What happens to a feather contaminated with oil?
- Does petroleum oil affect a bird in other ways besides damaging the feathers?
Terms, Concepts and Questions to Start Background Research
- Wildlife Rehabilitation – the act of caring for, and treating, injured and sick native wild animals with the intention of rereleasing the animal back into its native habitat
- Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 – Treaty between the U.S., Canada and other countries that protects native birds making it illegal in part to “pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill, attempt to take, capture or kill, possess,. . . for the protection of migratory birds . . . or any part, nest, or egg of any such bird." (16 U.S.C. 703)
- Waterproof – when a bird has a protective coat that prevents water from reaching the skin and traps an insulating layer of air under the feathers.
- Uropygial gland – a gland located at the base of the tail found in most species of birds that secretes and oily substance.
Experimental (Research) Procedure
- Conduct background research on waterproofing and the effects of oil on birds.
- Run your fingers along the feather to align the feather and then to break up the feather. Look at the feather under a microscope after aligning the feather and after breaking it up. Diagram the results of each.
- Put a drop of vegetable oil on the feather and gently rub it in with your finger. This replicates how a bird would try to preen itself in an attempt to clean the oil off. What happens? Look at the oil spot under a microscope and diagram what you see.
- Make a display presenting your research and experiment results. Include an undamaged feather and oiled feather to show.
IBRRC: How Oil Affects Birds http://www.ibrrc.org/oil_affects.html
Oiled Wildlife Care Network: Effects of Oil on Wildlife http://www.owcn.org/about-oiled-wildlife/effects-of-oil-on-wildlife
Rochester Institute of Technology: Flightless Cormorant http://people.rit.edu/rhrsbi/GalapagosPages/Cormorant.html
Unusual feather structure allows partial plumage wettability in diving great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo http://www.cefe.cnrs.fr/esp/publis/DG/GremilletJAB2005.pdf
International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council http://www.iwrc-online.org
Warning is hereby given that not all Project Ideas are appropriate for all individuals or in all circumstances. Implementation of any Science Project Idea should be undertaken only in appropriate settings and with appropriate parental or other supervision. Reading and following the safety precautions of all materials used in a project is the sole responsibility of each individual. For further information, consult your state’s handbook of Science Safety.