Properties of Waves: A Ripple Tank

Author: Jerry Silver

The Idea

Water waves are probably the most tangible type of wave. For this reason, water waves can be useful in studying wave properties in general. A ripple tank provides a simple, convenient way to produce and study waves and the various types of obstacles they can encounter.

What You Need

  • shallow tray or tank with a transparent bottom or commercially available ripple tank
  • water
  • bright light that can be held or mounted above the tank
  • one or several plain sheets of white poster board to serve as a screen on which to view the images produced by the ripple tank
  • various props including a straight wall, a curved wall, a thick glass plate about one-half the thickness of the water in the tank, a cup, a pencil, and a manual or mechanical source of ripples
  • optional: a way to project the shadows generated, such as an overhead project or a video monitor


Basic wave generation

  1. Set up the tank with the light overhead. The shadow pattern should be visible on the floor.
  2. Adjust the height of the light above the tank and the screen below the tank to give the best focus of the shadows from the ripples on the floor.
  3. Using the tip of a ruler, tap the surface of the water to produce ripples. If you have a vibrating ripple generator, using that might give more consistent results and you won't get tired as quickly from making ripples.
  4. You should see the ripples spread out in a circular pattern. The tank should be large enough, so this outward moving circular pattern is not obscured by the reflection of the ripples from the side of the tank. Sometimes, a border of foam cushioning is used to minimize side reflections.
  5. Estimate the wavelength (average distance between ripples) and frequency (number of ripples per second). Estimate the velocity of the ripples. Compare this with the velocity predicted by the wave equation (which applies to all waves): velocity = wavelength × frequency (in cycles per second, which is the same as hertz). If you measure the wavelength in centimeters, the velocity will be in centimeters per second.


  1. Insert a straight barrier—a wall—in the tank.
  2. Generate ripples moving toward the barrier at various angles.
  3. Observe the angle the reflected waves make compared with the incoming waves.

Ripple Tank.

Concave and convex curved reflector

  1. Insert the concave reflector. This is where the sides curve toward the source of the ripples. Observe how the waves are reflected. Do the waves converge or diverge?
  2. Generate ripples that originate at that focal point. How do the ripples move?
  3. Insert (or reshape) the reflector, so it is convex. This is where the sides curve away from the source of the ripples. Do the waves converge or diverge?


  1. Place a thick plate in the tank.
  2. What happens to the speed of the waves as the waves cross over the plate? What happens to the wavelength? Does this make sense given that the frequency doesn't change?
  3. Direct waves to the plate at an angle. What happens when the waves cross from the deep water to the shallower water?
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