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Viscosity, Surface Tension and Temperature (page 2)

based on 43 ratings
Author: Jialing Z.

Term and Concepts for Background Research

  1. Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.
  2. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress.
  3. Dipole-dipole forces are attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule.
  4. An ion-dipole force is an attractive force that results from the electrostatic attraction between an ion and a neutral molecule that has a dipole.
  5. Colloid is a system in which finely divided particles, which are approximately 10 to 10,000 angstroms in size, are dispersed within a continuous medium in a manner that prevents them from being filtered easily or settled rapidly.
  6. Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids; therefore, saturated fat is polar molecule.
  7. Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form in a biologically functional way. Proteins will denaturize at high temperature.
  8. Hydrogen bond is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, such as N, F or O.

Hypothesis

My hypothesis, for my science fair project, is that as temperature increases, viscosity and surface tension both decrease. Since viscosity and surface tension are both properties of liquid, there is a relationship between them that surface tension varies directly as viscosity with temperature being constant.

Methods of Procedure

Viscosity
  1. Boil water in the electrical kettle. Measure 0.2L of water in the measuring cup eight times. Put 0.2L of water into 8 identical glass cups.
  2. Put six of the glass cups into the refrigerator in order to cool them down. Each cup of water will remain in the refrigerator for different periods of time. The reason for this is that each cup needs a different core temperature.
  3. Put one cup on the counter, and use the other one to do Step 4 so as to have different high temperatures.
  4. Pour the water through the funnel while measuring time using a stop watch for all 0.2L water to pass through the funnel.
  5. Repeat Step 4 with the six glass cups in the refrigerator and one cup on the counter to get flowing times at different temperatures.
  6. Repeat Step 1-Step 5 on different liquids: Coke®, milk, and vinegar.
Surface Tension
  1. Put several identical glass cups on the table; chill water in a large container in the freezer, and boil water on the stove.
  2. Combine the chilled water and boiling water in each cup to achieve different compositions of chilled water and boiling water and stir the water in order to get different temperatures.
  3. Put a small piece of identical paper on the surface of the water of each cup for better pressure distribution.
  4. Put paper clips on the paper in each cup until the paper clips begin to fall; measure the temperature of each cup when the paper clips start to fall down.
  5. Repeat the same procedures for vinegar, Coke® and milk.

Results

1.  Water

                 Water Surface Tension

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L water above the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L water above the paper(g)

7.41
9.81
52.9
3.06
12.1
8.50
57.2
2.72
14.7
7.82
66.0
2.04
16.9
7.14
74.2
1.70
26.2
5.10
82.3
1.70
27.4
5.10
85.1
1.36
34.2
3.40
87.7
1.36
51.1
2.38
92.5
1.02

                        Water Viscosity
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L water through the funnel
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L water through the funnel
2.5
9.9 sec
45.5
7.4 sec
13
8.9 sec
57
7.2 sec
15.5
8.4 sec
80
6.7 sec
36.5
7.9 sec
91
6.2 sec
40
7.5 sec
97
5.9 sec

Using the equation of water surface tension from Page 6 to substitute in the equation of water viscosity, we arrive at this equation:

            Viscosity=0.2995(Surface Tension-16.966) +11.251

2.     Coke®

                          Coke® Surface Tension

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L coke above the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L coke above the paper(g)

1.92
11.9
40.4
4.08
4.82
9.86
53.8
4.08
10.7
9.18
67.2
2.72
23.8
5.44
87.4
2.04
37.7
3.74
90.5
1.36

                         Coke® Viscosity
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L coke through the funnel
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L coke through the funnel
2
9.5sec
50
7.9 sec
16
8.7 sec
52
7.7 sec
29
8.1 sec
70
7.5 sec
37
7.9 sec
102
7.1 sec

Using the equation of Coke® surface tension from Page 8 to substitute in the equation of Coke ® viscosity, we arrive at this equation:

             Viscosity=0.217(Surface Tenson-14.271) +10.067
 

3.     Vinegar

                     Vinegar Surface Tension

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L vinegar above the paper(g)
Temperature (℃)
Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L vinegar above the paper(g)
1.06
12.24
34.3
4.08
3.78
9.86
42.1
3.06
8.57
7.82
56.8
2.04
19.1
5.1
63.3
1.7
23.6
5.1
81.5
1.02

    

                            Vinegar Viscosity
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L vinegar through the funnel
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L vinegar through the funnel
4
10.3sec
58
7.9sec
16
9.1sec
74
7.3sec
31
8.4sec
87
6.9sec
35
8.2sec
103
6.5sec

Using the equation of vinegar surface tension from Page 10 to substitute in the equation of vinegar viscosity, we arrive at this equation:

              Viscosity=0.3551(Surface Tenson-13.031) +11.377

4.     Milk

                    Milk Surface Tension

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L milk above the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Paper Clips staying on 0.2L milk above the paper(g)

0.53
13.26
39.7
4.42
5.37
9.52
47.1
3.06
9.54
8.16
67.4
2.72
16.8
6.46
85.1
3.06
20.5
6.12
92.7
2.04

                         
                               Milk Viscosity
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L milk through the funnel
Temperature(℃)
Time of flowing 0.2L milk through the funnel
2
9.7sec
54.5
8.1sec
7
9.2sec
64
7.7sec
17
8.9sec
89
7.4sec
30
8.5sec
102
7.1sec

Using the equation of milk surface tension from Page 12 to substitute in the equation of milk viscosity, we arrive at this equation:

              Viscosity= 0.2848(Surface Tenson-12.561) +10.407

This graph summarizes all the previous relationships between Surface Tension and Temperature for all liquids.

This graph summarizes all the previous relationships between Viscosity and Temperature for all liquids.

*I simply left the unit of Surface tension as grams as it was measured in the experiments.

This graph summarizes all the previous relationship between Surface Tension and Viscosityfor all liquids.

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