Early Civilization, Empires of Asia and the Mediterranean Practice Test
1. During the Shang dynasty, the emperor expected all the following from the clan rulers of the city-states except _________________.
A. political loyalty
B. religious sacrifices
C. regular financial tributes
D. military support
2. Akhenaton was unique among Egyptian pharaohs because ______________.
A. he reunited Upper and Lower Egypt under the rule of one pharaoh
B. he decreed that Egyptians should worship only one god
C. he was given a lavish burial
D. he was religiously conservative
3. The Roman Empire under Augustus and his early successors is best described as _______________.
A. an absolute monarchy run by a highly efficient, centrally controlled bureaucracy
B. a group of city-states united by a common language, a common religious faith, and a shared cultural heritage
C. a collection of independent principalities and free cities owing allegiance to one titular monarch
D. a constitutional monarchy with an emperor as the head of state and a representative assembly that carried out the will of the people
4. China during the Qin dynasty is best described as ______________ .
A. a popular democracy
B. a totalitarian state
C. a constitutional monarchy
D. a military dictatorship
5. The geographical expansion of the _______________ threatened the supremacy of the Phoenicians.
A. Egyptian state
C. Chinese Empire
D. Greek civilization
6. Which best describes the Vedas?
A. epic poetry about the lives of the gods and goddesses
B. collections of hymns and religious rituals
C. philosophical advice to princes and individuals
D. the early history and legends of a civilization
7. During the twelfth century BC, Egypt and _______________ agreed to a policy of mutual nonaggression.
A. the Hittites
B. the Hyskos
C. the Libyans
D. the Persians
8. The Greeks Herodotus and Thucydides and the Romans Suetonius and Tacitus are significant because of their contributions in the field of _______________.
9. Alexander the Great is famous in history for his ______________ .
A. military conquests
B. philosophical essays
C. epic poems
D. civil law code
10. The first human civilizations arose in _______________ .
A. the Americas
B. the Near East
C. southern Africa
D. the Far East
11. All these causes contributed to the fall of the Gupta Empire in India except _______________.
A. a series of popular uprisings against the government
B. rival claims to the throne among the rajas
C. bickering among the various political factions
D. the lack of connection between northern and southern India
12. The Legalists of ancient China supported the establishment of a code of laws because _____________.
A. they were concerned about repeated crime waves in the provinces
B. they believed it was the best way to avoid peasant uprisings
C. they believed it would lead to a wealthy state with a strong government
D. they believed it was divinely ordained that society should be fair and just to all
13._____________ was (or were) the most valued of the goods exported by China during the ancient era.
D. Iron weapons
14. The most important contribution the ancient Hebrews made to human civilization is _______________ .
A. the tradition of popular revolution
B. the invention of the copper-tin alloy we call bronze
C. the belief in one god who created man and woman in his own image
D. an alphabet in which each character stood for a sound rather than a whole word
15. The most likely reason Buddhism did not become the major religion of India is _______________ .
A. it showed the way to achieve spiritual peace
B. it urged believers to overcome destructive passions
C. it opposed the caste system
D. it discouraged belief in the rights of the individual
16. The world’s first literary epic is a product of the _________________ civilization.
17. ______________ won a major victory in the Peloponnesian War.
18. ________________ is unique among the ancient civilizations for having a rigid caste system that still exists today.
19. Many of the Roman emperors came from a background of ______________.
C. military service
D. business and trade
20. Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations had all these things in common except _________________ .
A. they were skilled sailors and shipbuilders
B. they kept extensive written records
C. they were warrior cultures
D. they had thriving mercantile economies
21. The first Babylonian Empire is noted for its achievements in all these fields except ______________.
A. civil and criminal law
D. abstract philosophy
22. The Greek civilization was finally defeated by the rise of ______________.
A. the Indo-Aryan civilization
B. the Roman Republic
C. the Macedonian Empire
D. the Zhou dynasty
23. The Phoenicians were famous in their own time as ________________ .
24. The philosophy of Confucius embraced all the following ideas except ______________.
A. the established social order should be maintained
B. each individual should carry out his responsibilities to his best ability
C. personal integrity would lead naturally to just government
D. the worker makes the most important contributions to society
25. The women of ________________ seem to have had greater freedom and opportunity than women in other ancient civilizations.
D. the Indus Valley
26. How did the invading Huns help Hinduism become the supreme religion in India?
A. by converting to Hinduism as they blended with the native Indian population
B. by destroying many Indian Buddhist monasteries
C. by sending Hindu missionaries to Central Asia
D. by encouraging religious pilgrimages along the Silk Road
27. Attributed to the Ionian poet Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey describe ________________.
A. the fall of Athens
B. the destruction of Carthage
C. the conquests of Alexander the Great
D. the Trojan War and its aftermath
28. The Assyrians were particularly concerned to maintain a formidable army because ______________.
A. their empire was geographically vulnerable to invasion
B. they were a deeply religious people
C. their economy was based on the production of arms
D. they had no navy and no knowledge of shipbuilding
29. _______________ is the Roman emperor who officially established Christianity as the state religion.
30. _____________ can accurately be described as the most influential thinker in the history of the West.
31. The Persians and Medes originally came to the Near East region from ______________ .
A. Southern Europe
B. Eastern Europe
32. After the death of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Empire _______________ .
A. broke apart into small independent kingdoms
B. was absorbed into the Greek civilization
C. began a long war of attrition against the Romans
D. attempted unsuccessfully to invade India
33. Around 550 BC, the Second Babylonian Empire gave way to _______________.
A. the Assyrians
B. the Egyptians
C. the Medes
D. the Persians
34. In ancient times, India was geographically vulnerable to invasion only from _______________.
A. the southwest
B. the northwest
C. the southeast
D. the northeast
35. Why did the Greeks traditionally build the capital city on the acropolis (highest rock)?
A. so that its importance would be clear to all observers
B. so that the ruler could always observe what the people were up to
C. so that it would be secure from enemy invasion
D. so that the people would always look up to it
36. Which best describes the Egyptians’ belief about the pharaoh?
A. The pharaoh ruled by divine right.
B. The pharaoh was wiser than all other Egyptians.
C. The pharaoh was descended from the gods.
D. The pharaoh was divinely inspired.
37. The Roman civilization is notable for its original contributions to humankind in all these areas except ____________.
A. polytheistic religion
B. engineering and building
C. republican government
D. civil and criminal law
38. _______________ made continual attempts to invade China from the steppes of Central Asia.
A. The Guptas
B. The Buddhists
C. The Indians
D. The Xiongnu
39. At its height, the Greek civilization included all of the following territory except _______________ .
A. the mouth of the Nile
B. the bulk of the Italian peninsula
C. the coast of the Black Sea
D. the island of Crete
40. The ______________ emerged victorious in the Persian Wars of the fifth century BC.
41. Rome fought the Punic Wars in order to _______________ .
A. take control of the entire Italian peninsula
B. defeat the Greek civilization
C. push the Roman Empire’s boundaries as far north as the Rhine River
D. defeat the Carthaginian threat to Roman supremacy in the region
42. The greatest legacy of the Assyrian king Sargon II is ________________ .
A. his library of ancient works of literature
B. the luxury objects found in his tomb
C. the code of laws that bears his name
D. his establishment of the Aramaic language as the international standard
43. Historians believe that all these groups share a common Eastern European origin except ______________ .
A. the Aryans
B. the Medes
C. the Etruscans
D. the Persians
44. All these were major factors in the fall of the Roman Empire except _______________.
A. economic troubles
B. threats of invasion
C. natural disasters
D. cultural divisions between east and west
45. The Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history ended with invasion and conquest by ______________ .
A. the Hebrews
B. the Sea Peoples
C. the Hyskos
D. the Romans
46. The Gupta Empire in India began as the result of ______________ .
A. a major religious revival
B. successful military campaigns
C. the unexpected death of the emperor
D. a massive foreign invasion and takeover
47. Before long, the Delian League formed after the Persian Wars became ______________.
A. the basis of a united Greek army and navy
B. a great empire stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indus River
C. a popular democracy in which the adult male citizens made the decisions
D. a group of satellite states subject to Athenian control
48. All of the following internal problems contributed to the fall of the Persian Empire except _____________.
A. lack of organization within the military
B. weak and incompetent rulers
C. dissension among the diverse ethnic groups that made up the empire
D. geographical expansion beyond the government’s ability to maintain control
49. Buddhism became the major religion in all the following regions except ______________.
D. Sri Lanka
50. Historians know very little about the ancient Indus Valley civilization because ______________.
A. its people were illiterate
B. invaders destroyed all its written records
C. its written records have not yet been decoded
D. it is too far in the remote past;
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. B 7. A 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. D 12. C 13. A 14. C 15. C 16. D 17. A 18. B 19. C 20. C 21. D 22. C 23. A 24. D 25. A 26. B 27. D 28. A 29. C 30. D 31. B 32. A 33. D 34. B 35. C 36. C 37. A 38. D 39. B 40. C 41. D 42. A 43. C 44. C 45. C 46. B 47. D 48. A 49. B 50. C
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