AP European History Practice Test 2

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 7, 2011

Below is a practice exam for AP European History exam.  There are two sections in this practice exam.  Section I has 80 multiple choice questions.  Section II has 1 document-based question (DBQ) and 2 essay questions.  For a thorough review of the concepts in this practice exam, refer to the information center on AP European History Notes.

Section I

Time—55 minutes

80 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.

  1. Which of the following is the most complete conclusion that can be drawn from the chart above for the period 1830–1850?
    1. The United Kingdom was the largest consumer of cotton in both 1830 and 1850.
    2. Belgium had the smallest population in Europe during this period.
    3. The United Kingdom imported the most cotton during this period.
    4. The United Kingdom led Europe in textile production.
    5. The United Kingdom had both the greatest consumption of cotton and the greatest rate of increase in cotton consumption.
  2. Which of the following can be understood as a result of the Seven Years War?
    1. The French Revolution began.
    2. Maria Theresa ascended to the throne of Austria.
    3. Britain became the dominant imperial power in the world.
    4. The Ottoman Turks were further weakened.
    5. Prussia was weakened.
  3. Which of following did NOT contribute to the radicalization of the French Revolution?
    1. Austria and Prussia's declaration of war on the French Republic
    2. the flight to Varennes
    3. factionalizing of the Assembly
    4. the execution of Louis XVI
    5. the rise of the sans-culottes
  4. The most significant, long-term result of the revolutions of 1848 was
    1. the large-scale abandonment of liberalism by the masses
    2. Hungarian independence
    3. the rise of communism
    4. the unification of Italy
    5. the triumph of democratic reform
  5. Which of the following is NOT true of the Second Industrial Revolution of nineteenth-century Europe?
    1. It began in Great Britain.
    2. It took place later further east.
    3. The pace slowed after an initial quick start.
    4. It took place more quickly further east.
    5. There was more government involvement further east.
  6. Which of the following nineteenth-century ideologies stressed both individual freedom and government regulation?
    1. socialism
    2. utilitarianism
    3. liberalism
    4. conservatism
    5. anarchism
  7. Which of the following is a combination of tactics used by both Cavour and Bismarck in their drive to unite Italy and Germany respectively?
    1. diplomacy and royal marriage
    2. peasant revolts and military action
    3. diplomacy and bribery
    4. war and secret dealings with the pope
    5. war and diplomacy
  8. Fifteenth-century attempts to centralize and consolidate power were most successful in
    1. France
    2. England
    3. Italy
    4. Spain
    5. Germany
  9. Which of the following is true of humanism as it manifested itself in northern Europe?
    1. It was less secular than Italian Renaissance humanism.
    2. It pursued scholarship and learning in a tradition of religious piety.
    3. It was critical of the notion that priests were required to understand and interpret Scripture.
    4. It formed part of the foundation for the Reformation.
    5. All of the above.
  10. Which of the following is particular to Calvinist theology?
    1. Salvation is achieved through faith alone.
    2. Scripture is the only reliable guide to salvation.
    3. The Church must not be hierarchical in nature.
    4. Some souls have been predestined for salvation.
    5. The Bible should be printed in the vernacular.
  11. Which of the following was accomplished by Peter the Great of Russia (1682–1725)?
    1. He abolished serfdom.
    2. He expanded the Russian Empire.
    3. He launched the industrialization of Russia.
    4. He curbed the power of the nobility.
    5. He provided tax relief for the peasantry.
  12. Which of the following would be advocated by a follower of Descartes?
    1. There are four elements in the terrestrial realm.
    2. All true knowledge is derived from observation.
    3. Seeing is believing.
    4. One should always proceed from a clear and distinct idea.
    5. Telescopic observations should be the basis of knowledge of the heavens.
  13. An advocate of laissez-faire
    1. advocates protectionist tariffs
    2. argues that only natural laws are legitimate
    3. argues that the government should refrain from trying to regulate the economy
    4. argues that the government should act as an "invisible hand" to regulate the economy
    5. argues that a monarch rules by the command of God
  14. Which of the following was a result of the development of rural manufacturing in the eighteenth century?
    1. the spread of capital throughout the population
    2. a decrease in total agricultural output
    3. the enclosure movement
    4. urbanization
    5. the formation of a working class
  15. Which of the following precipitated the fall of the Second Republic in France?
    1. France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
    2. a coup and two plebiscites
    3. the French Revolution
    4. the Crimean War
    5. the unification of Italy
  16. The postimpressionists of the late nineteenth century are distinguished from their predecessors, the impressionists, by
    1. their desire to create a more emotionally expressive effect
    2. their use of visible brush strokes
    3. their use of heightened color
    4. their insistence on real-life subjects
    5. their desire to capture the reality of the visual experience
  17. The Suez Canal episode in the early 1880s illustrates which of the following aspects of the "New Imperialism"?
    1. the underlying economic motives
    2. the willingness of Western governments to rule imperial holdings directly
    3. the way imperial expansion demanded further expansion
    4. the competitive nature of European expansion
    5. all of the above
  18. In which of the following ways did the Russian revolution affect the course of World War I?
    1. It gave the Allies a new enemy.
    2. Russia joined the Triple Entente.
    3. Russia withdrew from the war.
    4. It caused the Germans to launch a new offensive in the east.
    5. None of the above.
  19. Which of the following was NOT an element of fascism?
    1. a fanatical obedience to a charismatic leader
    2. an egalitarianism that extended to class and gender
    3. a professed belief in the virtues of struggle and youth
    4. an intense form of nationalism
    5. an expressed hatred of socialism and liberalism
  20. Successful resistance to communist rule in the 1980s was led by a labor union in which of the following countries?
    1. Czechoslovakia
    2. East Germany
    3. Yugoslavia
    4. Poland
    5. Russia
  21. Galileo's discovery of craters on the surface of the moon damaged the traditional view of the cosmos because it
    1. demonstrated that the moon was not made of perfect matter
    2. demonstrated the power of the telescope
    3. contradicted the notion that the Earth was at the center of the cosmos
    4. called into question the perfection of God's creative power
    5. all of the above
  22. Which of the following was argued by John Locke in the Second Treatise of Government?
    1. Peace requires an absolute ruler.
    2. A government must follow the "general will" of the people.
    3. Democracy is the only legitimate form of government.
    4. The government must always protect the people's right to property.
    5. Monarchy must always be opposed.
  23. The uncertainty principle was articulated as result of
    1. efforts to prove that all human knowledge is relative
    2. efforts to prove the existence of the ether
    3. efforts to disprove Einstein's theory of relativity
    4. efforts to develop an atomic bomb
    5. efforts to reconcile quantum physics with the classical approach to physics
  24. Which of the following explains the rapid development of technology in the textile industry in the eighteenth century?
    1. a shortage of labor
    2. the interconnected nature of technical innovation
    3. the triumph of reason over superstition
    4. the cotton boom
    5. the invention of the steam engine
  25. The War for Austrian Succession (1740–1748) was caused by
    1. Prussian expansionist aims
    2. a revolt of Austrian nobles
    3. the Pragmatic Sanction
    4. French aggression
    5. all of the above
  26. The most significant impact of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy on the course of the French Revolution was
    1. the alliance it created between the clergy and the National Assembly
    2. that it made the clergy subservient to the state
    3. that it alienated much of the Catholic population from the revolution
    4. its reaffirmation of the central place of the Church in the French government
    5. that it made Catholicism illegal in France
  27. The larger significance of the British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar was that
    1. the British navy defeated the combined French and Spanish fleets
    2. Napoleon's Grand Army was destroyed
    3. Napoleon had to call a halt to the Continental System
    4. Napoleon was captured and sent to the island of Elba
    5. it ended the threat of a French conquest of Britain
  28. The Schleswig–Holstein affair is an example of
    1. the Risorgimento
    2. Russian conservatism
    3. German liberalism
    4. French imperialism
    5. Realpolitik
  29. The formation of the Indian National Congress in 1885 demonstrates
    1. the successful colonization of India by Britain
    2. the scramble for Africa
    3. the formation of nationalism as a response to Western imperialism
    4. the beginning of the New Imperialism
    5. all of the above
  30. Which of the following extended the right to vote to the adult, male middle class in Britain?
    1. the Great Reform Bill of 1832
    2. the Reform Bill of 1867
    3. the Reform Bill of 1884
    4. the People's Charter
    5. the Midlothian Campaign
  31. The organization that campaigned for women's voting rights in Britain was
    1. the Fabian Society
    2. feminism
    3. the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
    4. the National Women's League
    5. the Women's Social and Political Union
  32. Of the three main negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, which one was most concerned to make sure that Germany could never threaten again?
    1. David Lloyd George
    2. Woodrow Wilson
    3. Charles de Gaulle
    4. Georges Clemenceau
    5. none of the above
  33. Pablo Picasso's Guernica (1937) depicts
    1. the Impressionist style
    2. the bombing of the town of Guernica by German planes
    3. the savagery of the fighting between fascists and socialists
    4. the valiant resistance of the socialists
    5. Hitler invading Spain
  34. The agreement which allowed Hitler to take the Sudetenland in return for his promise of no further aggression was known as the
    1. Nazi–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
    2. Concert of Europe
    3. Treaty of Brest–Litovsk
    4. Treaty of Versailles
    5. Munich Agreement
  35. The military alliance between communist countries in Eastern Europe after World War II was known as
    1. the Warsaw Pact
    2. the Truman Doctrine
    3. the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
    4. the Marshall Plan
    5. NATO
  36. Mikhail Gorbachev's attempt to "restructure" Soviet society and its economy was known as
    1. socialism in one country
    2. socialism with a human face
    3. glasnost
    4. perestroika
    5. the New Economic Plan
  37. In the fifteenth century, the Holy Roman Emperor was
    1. appointed by the pope
    2. dethroned in the Hundred Years War
    3. elected by a seven-member council of German archbishops and nobles
    4. the pope
    5. Henry VIII
  38. The creation of a Spanish Empire in the New World had all of the following effects EXCEPT
    1. economic inflation in Europe
    2. the establishment of Roman Catholicism in the New World
    3. the rise of a wealthy merchant class in Europe
    4. the establishment of a hierarchical social structure in Europe
    5. the establishment of a system of economic dependence between Europe and the New World
  39. A traditional institution within the Catholic Church that was transformed in the sixteenth century to fight the spread of Protestantism was
    1. the Reformation
    2. the Counter-Reformation
    3. the Inquisition
    4. the Conciliar Movement
    5. the Court of the Star Chamber
  40. Which of the following is an example of the Cartesian approach to physical science popular in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries?
    1. Maupertuis's calculation of the exact shape of the earth based on observations of longitudinal measurement
    2. Christiaan Huygens's explanation of the propagation of light by suggesting that it "flowed" like a fluid
    3. Galileo's telescopic observations of the moon
    4. Copernicus's hypothesis that the earth is in the center of the cosmos
    5. Linnaeus's creation of a system for the classification of living organisms
  41. Which of the following best characterizes the Counter-Reformation?
    1. a movement to reform the Catholic Church from within
    2. a movement to stamp out Protestantism
    3. a movement to create a "third theological way"
    4. a movement to both reform from within and combat the spread of Protestantism
    5. a movement to censure thinkers like Galileo
  42. During the period from 1600 to 1715, the traditional social hierarchy of Europe came under pressure by all of the following EXCEPT
    1. continuous warfare
    2. climate change resulting in series of bad harvests
    3. the rejection of religious practice by large numbers of people
    4. increased trade and the diversification of the economy
    5. the desire of monarchs to increase their power and authority
  43. Which of the following is the best example of the method described by Descartes in his Discourse on Method (1637)?
    1. True reality exists in the world of pure forms.
    2. "I think, therefore I am."
    3. A telescope reveals craters and mountains on the moon; therefore, matter in the celestial realm cannot be perfect.
    4. The orbits of the planets can be calculated using calculus.
    5. "Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance between them and directly proportional to the product of their masses."
  44. Which of the following best explains the eventual defeat of Napoleon and his forces?
    1. the inefficiency of the French army
    2. flawed policies that exacerbated resistance to French rule
    3. internal resistance by royalists and republicans
    4. the British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar
    5. tactical blunders
  45. The source of Prussian power in the eighteenth century was
    1. Bismarck's genius
    2. Prussia's industrial strength
    3. Prussia's diplomatic alliances
    4. Prussia's geographical position
    5. Prussia's powerful military
  46. The revolutions of 1848 are best understood as
    1. the result of tension between liberal and nationalist aspirations of the people of Europe and the determined conservatism of their aristocratic masters
    2. independence movements
    3. large-scale attempts to redistribute wealth in European society
    4. precursors to the French Revolution
    5. democratic revolutions
  47. Which of the following might be explained as a result of the introduction of steam power?
    1. the creation of the factory system
    2. the invention of the automobile
    3. decreased demand for coal
    4. an increased demand for coal
    5. the collapse of the shipping industry
  48. Conservatives opposed "constitutionalism" because they
    1. were monarchists
    2. believed that constitutions ignored reality
    3. respected tradition
    4. wanted to hold on to power
    5. believed a government should protect private property
  49. In the 1930s, Winston Churchill stood nearly alone in his
    1. advocacy of socialism
    2. support of the Soviet Union
    3. opposition to the policy of appeasement
    4. call for a coalition government
    5. efforts to draw the United States into the war
  50. Which of the following is an example of the revival of nationalist and ethnic tensions in eastern Europe after the disintegration of the Soviet Union?
    1. the war between Chechnyans and Russia
    2. the multisided war in Yugoslavia
    3. the splitting up of Czechoslovakia
    4. the war in Bosnia–Herzegovina
    5. all of the above
  51. Which of the following led an expedition that eventually circumnavigated the globe?
    1. Vasco da Gama
    2. Amerigo Vespucci
    3. Martin Waldseemüller
    4. Ferdinand Magellan
    5. Christopher Columbus
  52. All of the following help to explain why the Renaissance originated on the Italian peninsula EXCEPT
    1. geography
    2. political organization
    3. religion
    4. social structure
    5. economic structure
  53. All of the following posed difficulties for the Christian Church in Europe during the first decade of the sixteenth century EXCEPT
    1. the pope's status as ruler of the Papal States.
    2. the Church's use of Latin in the mass and in the printed Bible
    3. an increasingly literate population
    4. the Church's inability to tend to the emotional and spiritual needs of the population
    5. the split in the Christian population caused by the Protestant movement
  54. Which of the following would NOT be included in a list of the causes of the English Civil War (1642–1646)?
    1. the religion of Charles I's wife
    2. wars with Spain and France
    3. the invasion of a Protestant army from the Netherlands
    4. the invasion of England by the Scots
    5. Parliament's refusal to fund the war with Scotland without reform
  55. Which of the following is true of the Copernican model of the cosmos?
    1. The planets orbit the Sun in uniform circular orbits.
    2. The planets orbit the Earth in elliptical orbits with the Sun as one focus of the ellipse.
    3. The universe is infinite.
    4. The planets orbit the Sun in elliptical orbits with the Earth as one focus of the ellipse.
    5. The moon orbits the Sun, not the Earth.
  56. The book System of Nature (1770), by the Baron d'Holbach, was one of the most radical texts of the Enlightenment because of its
    1. advocacy of revolution
    2. materialism
    3. liberalism
    4. support for the French Revolution
    5. advocacy of science
  57. The Diplomatic Revolution of the eighteenth century refers to
    1. the invention of the "alliance"
    2. traditional enemies becoming allies
    3. the moderate phase of the French Revolution
    4. the Revolutions of 1848
    5. the Concert of Europe
  58. My heart leaps up when I behold

      A rainbow in the sky:

    So was it when my life began,

      So is it now I am a man,

    So be it when I shall grow old

      Or let me die!
  59. The nineteenth-century verse above is indicative of
    1. neoplatonism
    2. the Romantic movement
    3. the impressionist school
    4. conservatism
    5. the Enlightenment
  60. Charles Darwin, in The Origin of Species (1859), put forward the idea that
    1. competition was natural and necessary for social progress
    2. human nature was essentially cooperative
    3. biological diversity was the product of a purely natural process
    4. competition was the root of class conflict
    5. human beings evolved from apes
  61. Bismarck overcame south German reluctance to submit to Prussian leadership by
    1. appealing to their Catholic faith
    2. adopting their liberal reform agenda
    3. appealing to their nationalism
    4. appealing to their desire for a strong, authoritarian central government
    5. allying with the Junker class
  62. All of the following were effects of the Hundred Years War EXCEPT
    1. a significant decrease in the population
    2. a series of peasant rebellions
    3. a more politically unified France
    4. an economically weaker England
    5. the rise of a Spanish Empire in the New World
  63. All of the following were highly valued in the Renaissance EXCEPT
    1. scholarly achievement
    2. patronage of the arts
    3. proficiency in the military arts
    4. civic duty
    5. study of ancient languages
  64. All of the following are basic theological beliefs of Martin Luther EXCEPT
    1. Salvation is attainable by faith alone.
    2. Scripture is the only guide to knowledge of God.
    3. The Church hierarchy was unwarranted and harmful.
    4. Good works are essential to salvation.
    5. All who have faith can and should read the Bible.
  65. Which of the following is most true of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?
    1. It represents the triumph of constitutionalism in Britain.
    2. It brought democracy to Britain.
    3. It began the Restoration Period in Britain.
    4. It began the Commonwealth Period in Britain.
    5. It ended the Commonwealth Period in Britain.
  66. Isaac Newton is best described as working in
    1. the Aristotelian tradition
    2. the Scholastic tradition
    3. the Hermetic tradition
    4. the Platonic–Pythagorean tradition
    5. the Copernican tradition
  67. All of the following are examples of the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau EXCEPT
    1. Humans are born essentially good.
    2. The education of children should concentrate on developing the senses, sensibilities, and sentiments.
    3. "Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains."
    4. The proper role of government is to protect individual property.
    5. The virtuous citizen should be willing to subordinate his own self-interest to the general good of the community.
  68. All of the following transactions were part of the triangle of trade EXCEPT
    1. slaves from Africa sold in the Americas and West Indies
    2. tea from China sold in Europe
    3. guns from Europe traded in Africa
    4. cotton from the Americas sold in Europe
    5. rum from the West Indies sold in Europe
  69. The phase of the French Revolution known as "Thermidor" was characterized by
    1. a reassertion of control by the nobility
    2. the defeat of France by Austria
    3. the restoration of the monarchy
    4. the rule of the Committee of Public Safety
    5. a reassertion of control by the moderate portion of the propertied bourgeoisie
  70. Which of the following was an aim of the great powers represented at the Congress of Vienna in 1814?
    1. to punish France
    2. to divide and weaken Germany
    3. to restore the traditional order and to create a new balance of power
    4. to spread liberal reform more widely in Europe
    5. to provide independent nation states for Italy, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia
  71. Which of the following was a social effect of the Second Industrial Revolution?
    1. a more even distribution of wealth
    2. the development of a lower middle class
    3. the creation of a class of poor people
    4. the railway boom
    5. gender equity
  72. Which of the following is an example of the Sturm und Drang movement?
    1. Michelangelo's David
    2. Bismarck's Kulturkampf
    3. the assassination of Franz Ferdinand
    4. Guernica
    5. The Sorrows of Young Werther
  73. The best example of the power of nationalism in France in the mid-nineteenth century was
    1. the two plebiscites that established the Second Empire and made Louis-Napoleon hereditary emperor
    2. Louis-Napoleon's coup d'état on 2 December 1851
    3. the Paris Commune
    4. Louis-Napoleon's granting of universal manhood suffrage
    5. the Directory
  74. The Chartist movement (1837–1842) in Britain demonstrated
    1. the power of the monarchy
    2. the degree to which the lower middle and working classes desired further reform
    3. the strength of nationalism
    4. opposition to monarchy
    5. the degree to which working people were
  75. opposed to the mechanization of industry
  76. The atmosphere of "celebration" that accompanied the declarations of war in 1914 is partially explained by
    1. feelings of brotherhood and glory
    2. deep racial hatreds
    3. Germany's strong desire to repudiate the humiliating conditions of the Versailles Treaty
    4. deep resentment towards the Continental System
    5. all of the above
  77. In the context of World War I, the phrase "total war" referred to
    1. the bombing of civilians in major cities
    2. the total conversion of the economy to fulfill wartime needs
    3. the refusal to take prisoners
    4. the fighting of the war on multiple continents
    5. all of the above
  78. Which of the following can be understood as a consequence of World War II?
    1. the Treaty of Versailles
    2. the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the world's two greatest powers
    3. the reunification of Germany
    4. a strengthening of the British Empire
    5. the German invasion of Poland
  79. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the two major trends that most affected life in Eastern Europe were
    1. the flourishing of individual liberty and democracy
    2. the spread of corporate capitalism and a revival of religion
    3. American isolationism and European integration
    4. the revival of ethnic-nationalism and the advent of globalization
    5. a widening gap in the distribution of wealth and increased poverty
  80. Which of the following is true of the reunification of Germany?
    1. It was the product of a long, lengthy process of negotiation and compromise.
    2. Separate economic policies were set up to make the transition easier for East Germans.
    3. The former East Germany was essentially annexed by the West.
    4. It was led by East German members of the Civic Forum.
    5. All of the above.
  81. In "The Freedom of the Christian Man" (1520), Martin Luther
    1. called for people to rise up against an unjust social system
    2. appealed to the German princes' desire for both greater unity and power and to their desire to be free from the control of an Italian pope
    3. established the principle of "whoever rules; his religion"
    4. encouraged common men to obey their Christian conscience and respect those in authority who seemed to possess true Christian principles
    5. all of the above
  82. As the chief minister to Louis XIII of France, Cardinal Richelieu was able to
    1. disband the private armies of the great French aristocrats
    2. strip away the autonomy of the few remaining Protestant towns
    3. build a strong administrative bureaucracy
    4. strip provincial aristocrats and elites of their administrative power
    5. all of the above
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