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AP Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 7, 2011

Below is a practice exam for AP Microeconomics exam.  There are two sections in this practice exam.  Section I has 60 multiple choice questions.  Section II has 3 free response questions.  For a thorough review of the concepts in this practice exam, refer to the information center on AP Microeconomics/Macroeconomics Notes.

Multiple-Choice

Time—1 hour and 10 minutes

60 questions

For the multiple-choice questions that follow, select the best answer.

  1. Land, labor, capital and entrepreneurial talent are often referred to as
    1. production possibilities.
    2. goods and services.
    3. unlimited human wants.
    4. opportunity costs.
    5. scarce economic resources.
  2. The law of increasing costs is useful in describing
    1. a demand curve.
    2. a marginal benefit curve.
    3. a linear production possibility frontier.
    4. a concave production possibility frontier.
    5. a total fixed costs curve.
  3. Which of the following is likely to have a demand curve that is the least elastic?
    1. Demand for the perfectly competitive firm's output.
    2. Demand for the oligopoly firm's output with a homogenous product.
    3. Demand for the oligopoly firm's output with a differentiated product.
    4. Demand for the monopolistically competitive firm's output.
    5. Demand for the monopoly firm's output.
  4. AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  5. The figure above shows the production possibility frontiers (PPFs) for two nations that produce crabs and cakes. If these nations specialize and trade based on the principle of comparative advantage, which of the following trade agreements benefit both nations?
    1. Nation A trades three crabs to Nation B in exchange for two cakes.
    2. Nation A trades three cakes to Nation B in exchange for three crabs.
    3. Nation A trades one cake to Nation B in exchange for two crabs.
    4. Nation A trades one crab to Nation B in exchange for two cakes.
    5. Nation A trades four crabs to Nation B in exchange for six cakes.
  6. Which of the following scenarios would increase a nation's production possibility frontier (PPF)?
    1. The nation's system of higher education slowly declines in quality.
    2. The nation invests in research and development of new technology.
    3. The nation's infant mortality rate increases.
    4. Environmental pollution severely damages the health of the population.
    5. Mineral reserves are exhausted.
  7. A rational consumer who is eating Girl Scout cookies stops eating when
    1. the total benefit equals the total cost of eating cookies.
    2. the marginal benefit equals the marginal cost of the next cookie.
    3. the marginal cost of eating cookies is maximized.
    4. the marginal benefit of eating cookies is minimized.
    5. the price of the cookie equals the marginal benefit of the next cookie.
  8. A competitive market for coffee, a normal good, is currently in equilibrium. Which of the following would most likely result in an increase in the demand for coffee?
    1. Consumer income falls.
    2. The price of tea rises.
    3. The wage of coffee plantation workers falls.
    4. Technology in the harvesting of coffee beans improves.
    5. The price of coffee brewing machines rises.
  9. Which of the following certainly lowers the equilibrium price of a good exchanged in a competitive market?
    1. The demand curve shifts to the right.
    2. The supply curve shifts to the left.
    3. The demand curve shifts to the left and the supply curve shifts to the right.
    4. The demand curve shifts to the right and the supply curve shifts to the left.
    5. Both the demand and supply curves shift to the left.
  10. An effective price ceiling in the market for good X likely results in
    1. a persistent surplus of good X.
    2. a persistent shortage of good X.
    3. an increase in the demand for good Y, a substitute for good X.
    4. a decrease in the demand for good Z, a complement with good X.
    5. a rightward shift in the supply curve of good X.
  11. Which of the following goods is likely to have the most elastic demand curve?
    1. Demand for white Ford minivans.
    2. Demand for automobiles.
    3. Demand for Ford automobiles.
    4. Demand for American-made automobiles.
    5. Demand for a Ford minivan.
  12. Which of the following is a fundamental aspect of the free market system?
    1. A high degree of government involvement.
    2. Public ownership of resources.
    3. Private property.
    4. Central planners set wages and prices.
    5. Employers consult government agencies for guidance in hiring workers with appropriate job skills.
  13. The elasticity of supply is typically greater when
    1. producers have fewer alternative goods to produce.
    2. producers have less time to respond to price changes.
    3. producers are operating near the limits to their production.
    4. producers have less access to raw materials necessary for production.
    5. producers have more time to respond to price changes.
  14. Good X is exchanged in a competitive market. Which of the following is true if an excise tax is now imposed on the production of good X ?
    1. If the demand curve is perfectly elastic, the price rises by the amount of the tax.
    2. The consumer's burden of the tax rises, as the demand curve is more elastic.
    3. Consumer surplus rises as a result of the tax.
    4. The consumer's burden of the tax rises, as the demand curve is less elastic.
    5. If the demand curve is perfectly inelastic, the price does not rise as a result of the tax.
  15. Which of the following is an implicit cost for the owner of a small store in your hometown?
    1. The wage that is paid to the assistant manager.
    2. The cost of purchasing canned goods from a wholesale food distributor.
    3. The value placed on the owner's skills in an alternative career.
    4. The cost of cooling the refrigerated meat display.
    5. The price of placing an advertisement in the local newspaper.
  16. Suppose a price floor is installed in the market for coffee. One result of this policy would be
    1. a decrease in the demand for coffee-brewing machines.
    2. a persistent shortage of coffee in the market.
    3. an increase in consumer surplus due to lower coffee prices.
    4. an increase in the demand for coffee.
    5. a decrease in the profits for the owners of coffee plantations.
  17. Questions 16–17 refer to the table below, which describes employment and production of a firm that hires labor and produces output in competitive markets. The competitive price of the product is $.50.

  18. Which unit of labor has marginal revenue product equal to $1.50?
    1. 1st
    2. 2nd
    3. 3rd
    4. 4th
    5. 5th
  19. If the wage paid to all units of labor is $4.50, how many units of labor are hired?
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4
    5. 5
  20. Which of the following is true of the perfectly competitive firm in the short run?
    1. The firm earns a normal profit.
    2. The firm shuts down if the price falls below average total cost.
    3. The firm earns positive economic profit.
    4. The firm maximizes profit by producing where the price equals marginal revenue.
    5. The firm may earn positive, negative, or normal profits.
  21. Questions 19–21 refer to the figure below.

    AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  22. If the current price is 0B, we would expect
    1. a surplus in the market to be eliminated by rising prices.
    2. a shortage in the market to be eliminated by falling prices.
    3. a surplus in the market to be eliminated by falling prices.
    4. quantity demanded to be equal to quantity supplied as the market is in equilibrium.
    5. a shortage in the market to be eliminated by rising prices.
  23. If the price were to fall from 0C to 0A, which of the following would be true?
    1. Dollars spent on this good would increase if demand for the good were price inelastic.
    2. Dollars spent on this good would decrease if demand for the good were price elastic.
    3. Dollars spent on this good would increase if demand for the good were price elastic.
    4. Dollars spent on this good would increase if demand for the good were unitary price elastic.
    5. Dollars spent on this good would decrease if demand for the good were unitary price elastic.
  24. If the market is in equilibrium, which of the following areas corresponds to producer surplus?
    1. BGD
    2. 0AHJ
    3. 0DGK
    4. 0BG
    5. 0BGK
  25. The downward sloping demand curve is partially explained by which of the following?
    1. Substitution effects and income effects.
    2. The Law of Increasing Marginal Costs.
    3. The principle of comparative advantage.
    4. The Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns to production.
    5. The least-cost principle.
  26. Dorothy has daily income of $20, each cup of coffee costs Pc = $1 and each scone costs Ps = $4. The table below provides us with Dorothy's marginal utility (MU) received in the consumption of each good. As a utility-maximizing consumer, which combination of coffee and scones should Dorothy consume each day?
    1. 2 coffee and 2 scones
    2. 5 coffee and 6 scones
    3. 3 coffee and 2 scones
    4. 4 coffee and 4 scones
    5. 4 coffee and 16 scones
  27. You are told that the Gini coefficient of income inequality has risen from .35 to .85. Which of the following is a likely cause of this change?
    1. Market power in the factor and output markets has increased.
    2. Labor market discrimination has been eliminated.
    3. The distribution of wealth and property has become more equitable.
    4. The vast majority of adults have achieved at least a college degree.
    5. The tax system has become even more progressive.
  28. AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  29. The figure above best represents which of the following functions?
    1. Total product of labor
    2. Total revenue
    3. Total cost
    4. Total utility
    5. Total short-run economic profits
  30. If it is true that bacon and eggs are complementary goods, then
    1. the income elasticity of bacon is positive and the income elasticity for eggs is negative.
    2. the price elasticity for eggs is greater than the price elasticity for bacon.
    3. the cross-price elasticity between bacon and eggs is negative.
    4. the income elasticity of bacon is negative and the income elasticity for eggs is positive.
    5. the cross-price elasticity between bacon and eggs is positive.
  31. A firm employs variable amounts of labor to a fixed amount of capital to produce output. If the daily wage paid to labor increases, how does this affect the firm's costs?
  32. Diminishing marginal returns to short-run production begin when
    1. the average product of labor begins to fall.
    2. the total product of labor begins to fall.
    3. marginal product of labor becomes negative.
    4. average variable cost begins to rise.
    5. marginal product of labor begins to fall.
  33. Which of the following is a characteristic of perfect competition?
    1. Firms produce a homogeneous product.
    2. Barriers to entry exist.
    3. Firms are price-setting profit maximizers.
    4. The government regulates the price so that dead weight loss is eliminated.
    5. Long-run positive profits are available.
  34. The table above shows how hiring increasing amounts of labor to a fixed amount of capital affects the hourly output of Molly's lemonade stand. Based on this table of production data, which of the following can be said?
    1. Diminishing marginal returns begins with the first worker hired.
    2. Marginal cost begins to rise at the 6th worker hired.
    3. Total product is maximized at the 3rd worker hired.
    4. Average product begins to decline with the first worker hired.
    5. Diminishing marginal returns begins with the 4th worker hired.
  35. AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  36. The figure above shows the long-run average cost curve of a competitive firm. Which of the following choices best describes Region B in the diagram?
    1. Economies of scale
    2. Diseconomies of scale
    3. Constant returns to scale
    4. Diminishing returns to scale
    5. Increasing returns to scale
  37. The market for good X is currently in equilibrium. Which of the following choices would NOT cause both a decrease in the equilibrium price of good X and a decrease in the equilibrium quantity of good X?
    1. A decrease in consumer income and good X is a normal good.
    2. An increase in consumer income and good X is an inferior good.
    3. An increase in the price of good Y, a complement for good X.
    4. A decrease in the price of good Y, a substitute for good X.
    5. An increase in the number of consumers in the market for good X.
  38. Questions 33–34 refer to the figure below, which shows cost curves for a competitive firm.

    AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  39. If average variable cost at a quantity of 10 is $25, what is the value of $Y in the figure above?
    1. $250
    2. $25
    3. $35
    4. $1000
    5. $350
  40. At a quantity of 10, what is the value of $(YX)?
    1. $100
    2. $25
    3. $10
    4. $35
    5. $350
  41. The demand for labor falls if
    1. labor productivity falls.
    2. price of the good produced by labor rises.
    3. the price of a complementary input falls.
    4. demand for the good produced by labor rises.
    5. a minimum wage is removed from the labor market.
  42. Questions 36–37 refer to the graph below.

    AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  43. The curve labeled 4 represents which of the following?
    1. Marginal cost
    2. Marginal product of labor
    3. Average total cost
    4. Average fixed cost
    5. Average variable cost
  44. Where is the shut down point for this perfectly competitive firm?
    1. Any price below curve 4.
    2. Any price below 0c.
    3. Any price below curve 3.
    4. Any price below curve 2.
    5. Any quantity less than Q.
  45. If a market for a good is producing a negative externality,
    1. at the market output the marginal costs to society exceed the private marginal costs of production.
    2. at the market output the marginal benefits to society exceed the private marginal costs of production.
    3. at the market output the marginal costs to society exceed the total benefits to society.
    4. at the market output the private marginal costs of production exceed the marginal costs to society.
    5. at the market output the marginal benefits to society exceed the marginal costs to society.
  46. Which of the following is a characteristic of a monopoly market?
    1. Firms produce a homogeneous product.
    2. Barriers to entry exist.
    3. Firms are price-taking profit maximizers.
    4. Dead weight loss is eliminated through entry of competing firms in the long run.
    5. In the long run the firm earns normal profits.
  47. A monopolist may be able to maintain long-run positive profit due to
    1. dead weight loss.
    2. economies of scale in production.
    3. a price that is set equal to average total cost.
    4. perfectly elastic demand for the product.
    5. entry of new firms that keep the price high.
  48. Questions 41–42 refer to the graph below.

    AP_Microeconomics Practice Exam 2

  49. If this firm were a profit-maximizing monopolist, the price, output and profit would be
  50. Consumer surplus in the monopolist market is equal to the area:
    1. abce.
    2. abcf.
    3. P 5cd.
    4. 0Q1aP1.
    5. P1P5ca.
  51. The top six firms in an oligopolistic industry have market shares of 25%, 25%, 15%, 10%, 6%, and 3%. Many smaller firms split the rest of the market. What is the value of the four-firm concentration ratio?
    1. 65%
    2. 54%
    3. 75%
    4. 34%
    5. 50%
  52. Which of the following statements are true of consumer utility-maximizing behavior?
    1. tility from consumption of good X is maximized when the marginal utility is equal to zero.
    2. Total utility from consumption of good X rises at a decreasing rate.
    3. The consumer spends limited income until the quantity of good X consumed is equal to the quantity of good Y.
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. I and II only
    5. II and III only
  53. Oligopoly has at times been the subject of government antitrust regulation. Which of the following is a reason for this government regulation?
    1. Price is approximately equal to marginal cost.
    2. Price is approximately equal to average total cost.
    3. Dead weight loss lessens over time.
    4. Consumer surplus is lost as market power increases.
    5. Market efficiency is maximized.
  54. The production of chicken often results in offending odors that are picked up by the wind and blown over rural communities. This is an example of a ___externality, the result of which are spillover ___and an _____of resources to chicken production.
    1. negative, costs, underallocation.
    2. negative, benefits, overallocation
    3. negative, benefits, underallocation
    4. positive, costs, overallocation
    5. negative, costs, overallocation
  55. Which of the following are shared by perfectly competitive firms and monopolistically competitive firms?
    1. Barriers to entry
    2. Normal profits in the long run
    3. Excess capacity
    4. A homogenous product
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. II and IV only
    5. I, II, and III only
  56. The monopolistically competitive price is above marginal revenue because
    1. firms have differentiated products.
    2. firms are price takers.
    3. firms produce a homogenous product.
    4. the market is allocatively efficient.
    5. profits are normal in the long run.
  57. Dead weight loss in industries with market power is a result of
    1. profit-maximizing output occurs where price equals marginal revenue.
    2. profit-maximizing output occurs where price exceeds marginal cost.
    3. profit-maximizing output occurs where price equals marginal cost.
    4. profit-maximizing output occurs where price exceeds average total cost.
    5. profit-maximizing output occurs where price equals average total cost.
  58. If the government wishes to regulate a natural monopoly so that it earns a normal profit, it sets
    1. Price = Marginal Cost.
    2. Marginal Revenue = Marginal Cost.
    3. Price = Average Total Cost.
    4. Price = Marginal Revenue.
    5. Marginal Revenue = Average Total Cost.
  59. Which of the following would improve the efficiency of a monopoly market?
    1. The government regulates the monopolist to produce the output where marginal revenue equals marginal cost.
    2. The government provides additional legal barriers to entry.
    3. The government subsidizes the monopolist so that they achieve even greater economies of scale.
    4. The government eliminates trade barriers on potential foreign producers.
    5. The government regulates the monopolist to produce the output where monopoly profits are maximized.
  60. Which of the following increases the demand for interstate truck drivers?
    1. An increase in the wage of truck drivers.
    2. An increase in the supply of truck drivers.
    3. An increase in the price of diesel fuel, which is used to power semitrucks.
    4. A decrease in the demand for interstate shipping.
    5. A decrease in the price of semitrucks.
  61. A monopsony employer hires labor up to the point where
    1. Wage = Marginal Factor Cost.
    2. Marginal Factor Cost = Marginal Product of Labor.
    3. Marginal Factor Cost = Marginal Revenue Product of Labor.
    4. Wage = Marginal Revenue Product of Labor.
    5. Wage = Price of the good produced by the labor.
  62. The price of labor is $5 and the price of capital is $10 per unit. Using the table below, what is the least cost combination of labor and capital that should be hired to produce 18 units of output?
    1. 1 Labor and 2 Capital
    2. 4 Labor and 8 Capital
    3. 2 Labor and 1 Capital
    4. 5 Labor and 5 Capital
    5. 3 Labor and 2 Capital
  63. A cartel is often the result of
    1. perfectly competitive firms that agree to produce a homogenous product.
    2. oligopoly competitors that agree to restrict output to maximize joint profits.
    3. a monopoly that has been regulated by the government.
    4. a natural monopoly that has evolved into a perfectly competitive industry.
    5. monopolistically competitive firms that have agreed to earn normal profits in the long run.
  64. Suppose the state requires hairdressers and manicurists to pass a series of exams to be certified cosmetologists. How does this policy change the supply of cosmetologists, the equilibrium wage, and the price of a manicure?
  65. The local market for bankers is currently in equilibrium. Which of the following increases the local wage paid to bankers?
    1. Internet banking at home is becoming more popular.
    2. More college students are majoring in finance and economics, majors that make them attractive as bank employees.
    3. The price of banking software, a complementary resource to bankers, rises.
    4. Several banks in the local market merge and consolidate many operations.
    5. The price of automatic teller machines, a substitute for bankers, decreases and the output effect is greater than the substitution effect.
  66. The U.S. government collects tax revenue, buys military equipment from many private firms, and uses this equipment to provide national defense to all Americans. This is a good example of
    1. a natural monopoly.
    2. an excise tax on military equipment.
    3. a regressive tax.
    4. a public good.
    5. dead weight loss.
  67. Which of the following scenarios is the best example of a positive externality?
    1. Your neighbor has a swimming pool and throws loud late-night parties.
    2. Your neighbor has a swimming pool and allows you free access.
    3. Your neighbor has a swimming pool and the powerful chlorine odor blows into your open dining room window.
    4. Your neighbor has a swimming pool and allows you to use it in exchange for letting his kids use your swing.
    5. Your neighbor has a swimming pool that is conducive for the breeding of mosquitoes.
  68. Because of the free-rider effect, the private marketplace tends to
    1. provide the allocatively efficient amount of a public good.
    2. produce too much of a public good, requiring the government to intervene and tax the production of it.
    3. produce a public good in the amount where the marginal benefit to society equals the marginal cost to society.
    4. produce too little of the public good, requiring the government to intervene and provide it for all.
    5. produce too little of the public good, requiring the government to intervene and ban it.
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