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AP Psychology Practice Exam 1

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on May 7, 2012

Below is a practice exam for AP Psychology exam.  There are two sections in this practice exam.  Section I has 100 multiple choice questions.  Section II has 2 essay questions.  For a thorough review of the concepts in this practice exam, refer to the information center on AP Psychology Notes.

Section I

Time—70 minutes

100 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.

  1. Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your car?
    1. olfactory receptors
    2. gustatory receptors
    3. feature detectors
    4. basilar membrane
    5. pacinian corpuscles
  2. A population frequently studied to best assess the relative effects of nature vs. nurture is
    1. identical twins
    2. identical quadruplets
    3. adopted children and their adoptive parents
    4. couples who have been married for many years
    5. families with genetic diseases
  3. After watching cartoons in which characters hit, punch, and kick other characters, nursery school students engage in more aggressive behavior than after watching Barney. This observation best supports
    1. psychoanalytic theory
    2. psychodynamic theory
    3. social learning theory
    4. humanistic theory
    5. opponent process theory
  4. The smallest unit of language that carries meaning is a
    1. concept
    2. word
    3. phoneme
    4. morpheme
    5. grammar
  5. Nat's therapist tells him to relax, close his eyes, and breathe slowly whenever he begins to experience fear associated with being in an enclosed space. The therapist is using a technique that is central to
    1. person-centered therapy
    2. psychoanalysis
    3. rational-emotive therapy
    4. Gestalt therapy
    5. systematic desensitization
  6. Which of the following perspectives is most concerned with self-esteem and actualizing one's potential?
    1. humanistic
    2. behavioral
    3. cognitive
    4. psychodynamic
    5. sociocultural
  7. A therapist used the Rorschach inkblot test to help him analyze his patient's problems. He was most likely a
    1. psychoanalyst
    2. person-centered therapist
    3. behavioral psychologist
    4. certified clinical social worker
    5. psychiatrist
  8. A pigeon trained to peck at a green light pecks at a yellow light also. This illustrates
    1. generalization
    2. discrimination
    3. extinction
    4. spontaneous recovery
    5. shaping
  9. Who would most likely have said, "People are basically good"?
    1. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
    2. Behaviorist B. F. Skinner
    3. Cognitivist Albert Ellis
    4. Humanist Carl Rogers
    5. Gestaltist Fritz Perls
  10. More than half of the volume of the human brain is composed of the
    1. cerebral cortex
    2. septum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex
    3. medulla, pons, and cerebellum
    4. hypothalamus and thalamus
    5. olfactory bulbs, optic chiasma, pituitary gland, and reticular formation
  11. Joey, a 25-year-old convict, has a history of conduct disorder in elementary school and bullying in junior high. By high school, he was mugging peers and taking whatever he wanted from elderly shoppers without caring if he hurt anyone. Joey would most likely be diagnosed with
    1. antisocial personality disorder
    2. dissociative identity disorder
    3. paranoid schizophrenia
    4. somatoform disorder
    5. amnesia
  12. Your little cousin watches you at the computer, and when you get up he immediately tries to use the keyboard. His behavior in this situation can best be explained on the basis of
    1. superstition
    2. classical conditioning
    3. operant aversive conditioning
    4. modeling
    5. discrimination
  13. Although Andy wanted to cut class to get to the Yankee opener, he came to class to take a quiz and review for an exam. According to Freud, this behavior evidences a strong
    1. egocentricity
    2. super id
    3. id
    4. superego
    5. libido
  14. An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members is called
    1. prejudice
    2. ethnocentrism
    3. in-group bias
    4. discrimination
    5. scapegoating
  15. Which approach emphasizes that therapists can effectively help their clients by offering unconditional positive regard?
    1. Gestalt therapy
    2. cognitive therapy
    3. humanistic therapy
    4. behavior modification
    5. psychoanalysis
  16. Some groups of gang members wear head coverings and sunglasses when they assault people. The use of such disguises contributes to
    1. social loafing
    2. cognitive dissonance
    3. learned helplessness
    4. deindividuation
    5. the fundamental attribution error
  17. Of the following, which is characteristic of formal operational thinking?
    1. simple motor responses to sensory stimuli
    2. failure to understand reversibility
    3. capacity to deal well with concrete objects, but not hypothetical situations
    4. logical reasoning and systematic planning
    5. magical thinking and egocentrism
  18. Which neurotransmitter is most closely associated with both Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia?
    1. acetylcholine
    2. dopamine
    3. serotonin
    4. endorphins
    5. GABA
  19. Today, it is unlikely that a psychologist could condition a baby to fear a rat and other small animals in a research study at a university because
    1. no parent would permit a child to participate in such a study
    2. the study violates ethical guidelines
    3. babies are too young to fear small animals
    4. conditioning experiments are no longer done
    5. fear of animals is inborn
  20. According to Adler, firstborn children are more likely than subsequent children in a family to be
    1. sociable
    2. funny
    3. responsible
    4. followers
    5. liberal
  21. Brenda gets enraged when people criticize her, talks about becoming the first woman president, exaggerates her abilities and talents, takes advantage of classmates, and constantly demands attention in class. When she received a certificate for participating in an essay contest, she told everyone she'd won a prestigious writing award. She most likely would be diagnosed as evidencing
    1. hypochondriasis
    2. disorganized schizophrenia
    3. antisocial personality disorder
    4. narcissistic personality disorder
    5. clinical depression
  22. "Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes," commonly defines psychology. In their definition of psychology, behaviorists would be likely to eliminate
    1. science
    2. behavior
    3. mental processes
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. I and III only
    5. I, II, and III
  23. According to Erikson, a young adult's developmental crisis centers around
    1. intimacy vs. isolation
    2. identity vs. role confusion
    3. autonomy vs. shame and guilt
    4. industry vs. inferiority
    5. generativity vs. stagnation
  24. The perceived volume of a tone is mainly determined by its
    1. frequency
    2. timbre
    3. amplitude
    4. overtones
    5. saturation
  25. Shannon forgot her pillow when she went camping, so she complained about having to sleep with her head flat the whole night. Her failure to fold up her jeans and sweater to use as a pillow substitute best illustrates the effects of
    1. the availability heuristic
    2. functional fixedness
    3. confirmation bias
    4. the representativeness heuristic
    5. belief perseverance
  26. According to Abraham Maslow, esteem needs must at least be partially met before one is prompted to satisfy
    1. belongingness needs
    2. physiological needs
    3. self-actualization needs
    4. love needs
    5. safety needs
  27. The most widely used self-report inventory for personality assessment is the
    1. MMPI-2
    2. TAT
    3. WAIS-R
    4. Rorschach
    5. PSAT
  28. Behavioral therapy typically alters the patterns of responding of clients by
    1. helping patients identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences
    2. vigorously challenging clients' illogical ways of thinking
    3. influencing patients by controlling the consequences of their actions
    4. repeating or rephrasing what a client says during the course of therapy
    5. focusing attention on clients' positive and negative feelings toward their therapists.
  29. Scott tried to unscramble the letters NEBOTYA for 20 minutes to spell a word, but was not successful. While walking to class, the answer suddenly came to him that the word was BAYONET. This exemplifies
    1. classical conditioning
    2. operant conditioning
    3. the law of effect
    4. insight
    5. observational learning
  30. A disorder characterized by delusions of persecution, hallucinations, and disordered thinking is
    1. paranoid schizophrenia
    2. anorexia nervosa
    3. conversion disorder
    4. hypochondriasis
    5. organic mental disorder
  31. Jyoti notes the behavior of people as they wait in line for tickets to rock concerts. Which of the following research methods is she using?
    1. naturalistic observation
    2. survey
    3. controlled experiment
    4. quasi-experiment
    5. case study
  32. In daylight, objects that reflect all wavelengths of light appear
    1. black
    2. white
    3. dull
    4. ultraviolet
    5. infrared
  33. The Intelligence Quotient is defined as the
    1. chronological age/mental age × 100
    2. performance score/verbal score × 100
    3. mental age/chronological age × 100
    4. verbal score/performance score × 100
    5. range/standard deviation × 100
  34. According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, the first reaction of a person faced with a terminal illness is
    1. acceptance
    2. anger
    3. bargaining
    4. denial
    5. depression
  35. When Jared saw shadows of people on the walls of his bedroom, his blood pressure increased and his breathing rate sped up. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
    1. sensorimotor system
    2. somatic nervous system
    3. sympathetic nervous system
    4. pineal gland
    5. parasympathetic nervous system
  36. Which psychoactive drugs are most frequently prescribed to relieve pain?
    1. stimulants
    2. depressants
    3. antidepressants
    4. antipsychotics
    5. narcotics
  37. During the manic phase of a bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to experience
    1. high self-esteem
    2. delusions of persecution
    3. uncontrollable grief and despair
    4. visual hallucinations
    5. extreme sleepiness
  38. Dan read a list of 30 vocabulary words only once. If he is typical and shows the serial position effect, we would expect that the words he remembers two days later are
    1. at the beginning of the list
    2. in the middle of the list
    3. at the end of the list
    4. distributed throughout the list
    5. unpredictable
  39. Tony got accepted to the college he wants to attend, is going to the prom with a girl he really admires, and was hired for the summer job he sought. He has high
    1. self-efficacy
    2. self-doubt
    3. self-handicapping
    4. introversion
    5. deindividuation
  40. Species-specific behaviors that cannot be explained as a result of social learning or conditioning, such as Monarch butterflies flying to Mexico to mate, are called
    1. motives
    2. fixed-action patterns
    3. schemas
    4. imprinting
    5. reflexes
  41. Tests that have been pre-tested with a sample of the population for whom the test is intended and have a uniform set of instructions and administration procedures are
    1. valid
    2. standardized
    3. reliable
    4. fair
    5. predictive
  42. A famous character in a Shakespearean play keeps washing her hands to get them clean of blood that is no longer on them. The repeated washing of her hands is
    1. a delusion
    2. a compulsion
    3. a hallucination
    4. an obsession
    5. an attribution
  43. After collecting and analyzing the responses of 2,000 randomly selected study participants, Adeel finds that college juniors who work at paying jobs 15 hours a week get higher grades than juniors who don't have paying jobs or who work full time. Which of the following research methods did Adeel use?
    1. experimental
    2. naturalistic observation
    3. case study
    4. survey
    5. quasi-experimental
  44. Which of the following best exemplifies sensory adaptation?
    1. enjoying a song the more you hear it
    2. responding immediately every time the fire alarm is sounded
    3. not realizing how cold the pool is after you are under the water for a few minutes
    4. relying heavily on your hearing when you are walking down a dark corridor
    5. not knowing what other people at a cocktail party are saying while you are attending to one conversation
  45. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) published by the American Psychiatric Association provides information about all of the following EXCEPT
    1. names of mental disorders
    2. categorization of all mental disorders
    3. primary symptoms of all mental disorders
    4. secondary symptoms of all mental disorders
    5. causes of all mental disorders
  46. Dieters often have difficulty losing additional weight after reaching a specific plateau because their bodies function at a lowered metabolic rate according to
    1. VMH theory
    2. opponent process theory
    3. set point theory
    4. the law of effect
    5. drive reduction theory
  47. Which of the following scans can image brain function?
    1. CAT
    2. MRI
    3. PET
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. II and III only
    5. I, II, and III
  48. If arrested for committing a crime, whom of the following would be most likely to be declared legally insane?
    1. Aaron, who suffers symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia
    2. Brett, who has been diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder
    3. Clara, who suffers symptoms of zoophobia
    4. Don, who has symptoms of hypochondriasis
    5. Ed, who has been diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder
  49. During cooperative learning, all of the students in Group A initially were opposed to the death penalty, whereas two of the students in Group B were opposed to the death penalty and two were in favor of the death penalty. According to research, after an intense discussion within each group about capital punishment, we would expect
    1. both groups would moderate their positions
    2. Group A would moderate their positions, but Group B would retain their original positions
    3. Group A would become more firmly entrenched, while Group B members would moderate their positions
    4. Group A would retain their original positions, but Group B would moderate their positions
    5. both groups would have every member more firmly entrenched in their positions
  50. Wilder Penfield's studies suggest that some long-lost memories can be elicited through electrical stimulation of the brain. This suggests that forgetting may be a matter of
    1. displacement
    2. gradual decay
    3. retrieval failure
    4. failure to encode the memories
    5. unconscious wishes to forget
  51. During World War II, millions of Jews and other minorities were slaughtered because they were blamed for the financial and social problems of Germany. Such scapegoating illustrates
    1. sour grapes rationalization
    2. displacement
    3. sweet lemons rationalization
    4. projection
    5. reaction formation
  52. Of the following, which provides the most valid and reliable data about individuals as they progress through various stages of development?
    1. cross-sectional studies
    2. surveys
    3. transactional analysis
    4. longitudinal studies
    5. correlational studies
  53. As the time for the AP Psychology exam approached, several students in the class who had not been doing homework or attending classes earlier in the term became more concerned about studying and attending regularly. Their motivation seems to be
    1. intrinsic
    2. extrinsic
    3. instinctive
    4. pessimistic
    5. homeostatic
  54. A classically conditioned response can best be eliminated by presentation of
    1. the unconditioned stimulus without the conditioned stimulus
    2. the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
    3. a neutral stimulus
    4. conditioned stimulus a few seconds before the unconditioned stimulus
    5. unconditioned response
  55. The scores of Brian's team on the quiz were: 8, 6, 9, 7, 10, 9, 5, 4, The median of the team's scores is
    1. 9
    2. 8
    3. 7.5
    4. 7
    5. 6
  56. What type of test is the Advanced Placement Examination in Psychology?
    1. aptitude
    2. projective
    3. achievement
    4. intelligence
    5. individual
  57. Functionally, receptors in the retina of the eye differ most from receptors in the cochlea of the ear in the
    1. magnitude of the resting potentials of their membranes
    2. ions involved in their action potentials
    3. types of energy they transduce
    4. number of axons each cell possesses
    5. ability to reproduce
  58. Irrelevant thoughts that provide stimulation when your interest is flagging, letting you experience positive emotions, are
    1. nonconscious
    2. unconscious
    3. daydreams
    4. delusions
    5. circadian
  59. Which of the following contributes most directly to people's exaggerated perceptions of the likelihood of air travel disasters, nuclear power accidents, and terrorist violence?
    1. belief perseverance
    2. the framing effect
    3. overconfidence
    4. the representativeness heuristic
    5. the availability heuristic
  60. According to Whorf 's linguistic relativity hypothesis,
    1. we have an innate language acquisition device
    2. apes do not have language because they don't use proper syntax
    3. we tend to observe and imitate models
    4. language determines the way we think
    5. rewarding good behavior increases its frequency
  61. A severely overweight rat would most likely result from lesioning of the
    1. hippocampus
    2. thalamus
    3. hypothalamus
    4. amygdala
    5. pineal gland
  62. Maria, a bright high school student, fears success. To which of the following colleges would she most likely apply?
    1. Harvard, Stanford, and the local community college
    2. Stanford, Oxford, and the most competitive state college in her state
    3. the local community college and distant community colleges
    4. Harvard, Yale, and Stanford
    5. the most competitive state college in her state and in other states
  63. A projective test with ambiguous pictures that are frequently used to assess achievement motivation is the
    1. Thematic Apperception Test
    2. Rorschach inkblot test
    3. WAIS-R
    4. MMPI-2
    5. Stanford-Binet
    6. David collected data on 15 research participants. Their scores were: 42, 38, 14, 13, 12, 12, 11, 11, 11, 10, 10, 10, 9, 9,
  64. Which of the following statistics best reflects the central tendency of this data set?
    1. standard deviation
    2. correlation coefficient
    3. mode
    4. median
    5. mean
  65. The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
    1. depression
    2. anxiety disorders
    3. neurotransmitters
    4. genetic abnormalities
    5. social circumstances
  66. Which of the following explanations of why a 17-year-old drives his car at or below the speed limit best illustrates Kohlberg's conventional level of morality?
    1. "I don't want to get any tickets."
    2. "It's the law."
    3. "I want my parents to approve of my driving."
    4. "I don't want to crash my car."
    5. "With so many people in our society driving cars, I cannot put anyone else or myself in danger by driving at a faster speed than the number of cars, roads, and weather conditions permit."
  67. The president of a company brought in an outside consultant to disagree with him about an important decision to be discussed at a meeting of his top level executives in order to avoid
    1. the bystander effect
    2. groupthink
    3. social loafing
    4. the mere exposure effect
    5. the fundamental attribution error
  68. Javier wants to study the effects on achievement of taking a course in chemistry in the afternoon, rather than in the morning. A teacher has chemistry classes with the same number of students at 8:30 A.M. and 1:00 P.M., and volunteers to participate with her classes. A major problem in this study would be
    1. poor replication
    2. lack of a hypothesis
    3. confounding variables
    4. difficulty in obtaining informed consent
    5. the placebo effect
  69. The heritability for traits of a cloned population is
    1. 0%
    2. 25%
    3. 50%
    4. 75%
    5. 100%
  70. "Get cookie," best exemplifies
    1. babbling
    2. cooing
    3. holophrases
    4. telegraphic speech
    5. mental set
  71. Research reveals that the most critical factor in Type A behavior associated with heart disease is
    1. anger
    2. competitiveness
    3. sense of time urgency
    4. conscientiousness
    5. motivation
  72. Dr. Scarlett conducted experiments in which she electrically stimulated parts of a cat's brain. A cat that became terrified in the presence of a mouse was most likely stimulated in the
    1. limbic system
    2. thalamus
    3. medulla
    4. cerebellum
    5. temporal lobe
  73. Which of the following LEAST influences sexual behavior?
    1. hypothalamus
    2. pituitary
    3. gonads
    4. cerebral cortex
    5. reticular formation
  74. Ben thinks students will answer questions printed on yellow paper more quickly than those printed on blue paper. All study participants will take three tests with 35 multiple-choice questions each. The independent variable in Ben's experiment is
    1. the color of the paper
    2. the number of questions answered correctly
    3. how long it takes students to answer questions
    4. the total number of questions answered
    5. the difference in results between the experimental and control groups
  75. Which of the following best illustrates hostile aggression?
    1. A man slaps his wife because he is angry that she made hamburgers for dinner again.
    2. A sanitation man knocks over some rose bushes when he throws an empty can to the curb.
    3. A waitress breaks several cups and saucers when she drops a tray on the floor.
    4. A careless driver hits and severely injures a pedestrian who is crossing the street.
    5. An adolescent hangs up on an irritating salesperson.
  76. Cognitivists claim that classical conditioning results from
    1. an association between the unconditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response
    2. an association between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus
    3. an association between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response
    4. an association between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response
    5. an expectation of what is coming following the conditioned stimulus
  77. Which is likely to increase as a normal, healthy individual ages from 25 to 75 years of age?
    1. visual acuity
    2. crystallized intelligence
    3. ability to reason speedily
    4. fluid intelligence
    5. intelligence quotient
  78. In the rock opera Tommy, Tommy becomes deaf and blind after witnessing a terrible murder, although there is nothing organically wrong with his ears or eyes. Tommy is suffering from
    1. panic disorder
    2. post-traumatic stress disorder
    3. conversion disorder
    4. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    5. hypochondriasis
  79. Which of the following are included in the peripheral nervous system?
    1. brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves
    2. cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia
    3. spinal cord, spinal nerves, sense organs
    4. medulla, pons, thalamus
    5. amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
  80. Loss of the ability to understand language results from loss of tissue in which of the following lobes?
    1. right frontal
    2. right temporal
    3. right parietal
    4. left frontal
    5. left temporal
  81. When a 17-year-old student is failing at school, which society would most likely hold the parents accountable?
    1. United States of America
    2. Canadian
    3. Japanese
    4. English
    5. German
  82. Receptors that respond to gravity and keep you informed of your body's location in space are located primarily in the
    1. cochlea of the ear
    2. macula of the eye
    3. olfactory mucosa
    4. muscles and joints of the skeleton
    5. semicircular canals of the ear
  83. Although Jen is a very bright four-year-old, she doesn't think her mother's sister has any sisters. This lack of ability reflects
    1. conservation
    2. introspection
    3. transposition
    4. magical thinking
    5. egocentrism
  84. You are given four lists of words to learn: 1, 2, 3, and You must learn list 1, then list 2, etc. Which list(s) would cause proactive interference for remembering list 2?
    1. list 1 only
    2. list 3 only
    3. list 4 only
    4. lists 3 and 4 only
    5. lists 1, 3, and 4
  85. Dr. Ramchandran found that his patients who brushed their teeth after lunch had 1/20 the number of cavities in their teeth as those who didn't. After interviewing the dentist, a local newswriter reports that brushing teeth after lunch prevents cavities. Based on the dentist's research, which of the following statements is true?
    1. If at least 100 patients were studied, the writer's statement is justified.
    2. If a minimum of 500 patients were studied, the writer's statement is justified.
    3. At least 100 of the patients needed to have brushed their teeth after lunch for the writer's statement to be justified.
    4. Dr. Ramchandran's study needs to be replicated for the writer's statement to be justified.
    5. No matter how many participants, the writer's statement is not justified.
  86. Which of the following endocrine glands is NOT paired with a hormone that it produces?
    1. pineal–melatonin
    2. hypothalamus–thyroid-stimulating hormone
    3. thyroid–thyroxine
    4. adrenals–cortisol
    5. pancreas–glucagon
  87. A recent comparison of the intelligence scores of Asian Americans and African Americans on the Stanford-Binet showed that
    1. the mean score for Asian Americans was higher than for African Americans
    2. some African Americans scored higher than the average Asian Americans
    3. some Asian Americans scored lower than the average African Americans
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. I and II only
    5. I, II, and III
  88. A special diet can prevent the expression of the trait for
    1. Tay-Sachs syndrome
    2. PKU (phenylketonuria)
    3. Huntington's disease
    4. Down syndrome
    5. Klinefelter's syndrome
  89. Implications of Harlow's study (of baby monkeys reared by artificial mothers) for humans include which of the following?
    1. Providing breast milk is the key to developing an attachment between the baby and the mother.
    2. An infant can form an attachment with a nurturing father or other caretaker.
    3. Lack of nursing at the breast leads to maladjustment of a child.
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. I and II only
    5. I, II, and III
  90. Michelle watches David Letterman on television, but doesn't recognize him when she walks past him in Manhattan. Which effect on perception does this best illustrate?
    1. convergence
    2. context
    3. proximity
    4. closure
    5. monocular cues
  91. Emily scored at the 65th percentile on a standardized achievement test. This indicates which of the following? Her score was
    1. above average
    2. average
    3. below average
    4. just passing
    5. unreliable
  92. As a result of an accident, Abdul lost sight in his right eye. To judge the distance of vehicles when he is driving, Abdul is able to rely on cues of
    1. accommodation
    2. relative size
    3. retinal disparity
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. I and II only
    5. I, II, and III
  93. All of the following are positive symptoms of schizophrenia EXCEPT
    1. auditory hallucinations
    2. visual hallucinations
    3. paranoid delusions
    4. flat affect
    5. incoherent speech
  94. Today Susan took a pill for her allergy that raised her blood pressure, caused her heart to beat faster, and raised her body temperature. Now caught in traffic, she feels angry. Yesterday, when she took the pill she was with her husband. When her blood pressure rose, her heart speeded up, she got hotter, and she felt amorous. This description exemplifies
    1. the adaptation-level phenomenon
    2. two-factor theory
    3. James-Lange theory
    4. Cannon-Bard theory
    5. homeostatic theory
  95. Which of the following reinforcement schedules results in maintenance of behavior that is LEAST resistant to extinction?
    1. continuous
    2. fixed ratio
    3. fixed interval
    4. variable ratio
    5. variable interval
  96. When the class listened to a list of words, half the group was directed to listen for sounds while the other half was asked to gauge the emotional impact of the words. The group who gauged the emotional impact remembered many more words. This is evidence that better retention results with attention to
    1. semantic features
    2. echoic features
    3. shallow processing
    4. surface processing
    5. rehearsal
  97. Alpha waves are most closely associated with
    1. the hypnagogic state
    2. Stage 2 sleep
    3. Stage 3 sleep
    4. Stage 4 sleep
    5. alertness
  98. The focus of structuralists most closely matches the current perspective of
    1. psychoanalysis
    2. behaviorists
    3. cognitivists
    4. humanists
    5. evolutionists
  99. The primary reason why we cannot taste sand or smell platinum is that
    1. they are not chemicals
    2. they are not soluble in water
    3. they are poisonous
    4. they have no nutritional value
    5. the thresholds for tasting sand and smelling platinum are higher for humans than for amphibians and reptiles
  100. After sending a decal to display on a window and greeting cards with its logo, a charity sent the same people envelopes requesting contributions. Many people send contributions. The charity is using a technique known as
    1. overcompensation
    2. foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    3. the bystander effect
    4. proximity
    5. in-group bias
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