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AP Psychology Practice Exam 2

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 7, 2011

Below is a practice exam for AP Psychology exam.  There are two sections in this practice exam.  Section I has 100 multiple choice questions.  Section II has 2 essay questions.  For a thorough review of the concepts in this practice exam, refer to the information center on AP Psychology Notes.

Section I

Time—70 minutes

100 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.

  1. To act consistently with the group's behavior, Etan changed what he was doing. This illustrates
    1. stereotyping
    2. conformity
    3. obedience to authority
    4. out-group homogeneity
    5. hindsight bias
  2. Which of the following approaches emphasizes the importance of people's feelings and views human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking?
    1. biological
    2. behavioral
    3. cognitive
    4. humanistic
    5. psychodynamic
  3. Children are most likely to grow up more competent and responsible when they are raised by parents who behave in a manner considered
    1. authoritarian
    2. authoritative
    3. permissive
    4. inconsistent
    5. very strict
  4. Rather than use a shortcut to find out various possible combinations of alleles that could result from fertilization of an egg with particular genes by a sperm with particular genes, Shakira systematically lists every single possible combination to determine the probability that the baby will show a particular set of traits. Shakira is solving the problem by use of
    1. trial and error
    2. the availability heuristic
    3. the representativeness heuristic
    4. an algorithm
    5. confirmation bias
  5. Bessie could barely detect sweetness in a sip of water from a pitcher in which one quarter of a teaspoon of water was mixed into a half gallon of water. For taste, this is Bessie's
    1. absolute threshold
    2. difference threshold
    3. subliminal stimulation
    4. distal stimulus
    5. just noticeable difference
  6. Extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus
    1. precedes the unconditioned stimulus
    2. succeeds the unconditioned stimulus
    3. evokes the conditioned response
    4. no longer evokes the conditioned response
    5. is paired with the neutral stimulus
  7. A doctor suspects that her patient's language processing area is in the right hemisphere. This would most likely be corroborated by the use of
    1. CAT
    2. MRI
    3. PET
    4. MMPI
    5. TAT
  8. Free association and dream interpretation frequently characterize which of the following treatments?
    1. psychoanalysis
    2. behavior therapy
    3. humanistic therapy
    4. cognitive therapy
    5. existential therapy
  9. Because Al doesn't care how well he does at school, but does care about having enough money to pay for a car, Al's mother gives him money for every "A" and "B" he earns on school tests and projects. For which of the following theories is the mother's behavior an exemplary application?
    1. Cannon-Bard
    2. instinct
    3. drive reduction
    4. arousal
    5. incentive
  10. In a cartoon, an angel is perched on one shoulder and a devil is perched on the other shoulder of a character who needs to decide whether to give money to a homeless man or not. The devil says, "Don't give him anything, you'll make better use of the money than he will." The angel says, "Give him the money because he needs it more than you do." The character gives the homeless man half of his money. In a Freudian interpretation, the angel represents the character's
    1. libido
    2. id
    3. ego
    4. superego
    5. reality principle
  11. Barry reported that in his study, the relationship between religiosity and academic grades was not statistically significant. By "not statistically significant," he meant that the results
    1. were not important
    2. were not strong
    3. might have been due to chance
    4. were of no value to statisticians
    5. do not suggest any relationship
  12. What is the mode of the following set of scores: 70, 70, 80, 80, 60, 60, 50, 90, 90, 90?
    1. 74
    2. 75
    3. 90
    4. 40
    5. 10
  13. The AP Psychology examination given by the College Board in May exemplifies which of the following types of tests?
    1. aptitude
    2. projective
    3. achievement
    4. intelligence
    5. individualized
  14. Which of the following drugs is classified as a stimulant?
    1. alcohol
    2. nicotine
    3. heroin
    4. phencyclidine
    5. marijuana
  15. Which schedule of reinforcement is followed by Soledad, who answers every e-mail message her friend sends?
    1. fixed ratio
    2. fixed interval
    3. variable ratio
    4. variable interval
    5. continuous
  16. Before Justin could take an airplane flight, he needed to overcome his fear of flying. His therapist taught him relaxation exercises, which he practiced while first looking at pictures of airplanes, then seeing them take off at the airport, then going into an empty plane that would not take off, then finally taking a short flight. Which of the following treatments did he undergo?
    1. psychoanalysis
    2. behavior therapy
    3. humanistic therapy
    4. cognitive therapy
    5. existential therapy
  17. "Behavior is personality" best characterizes which of the following personality theories?
    1. psychodynamic
    2. behavioral
    3. biological
    4. sociocultural
    5. evolutionary
  18. Most New Yorkers remember where they were and what they were doing when they heard the World Trade Center was destroyed. Which of the following best identifies this type of memory?
    1. implicit memory
    2. engrams
    3. flashbulb memory
    4. explicit memory
    5. déjà vu
  19. Although a man watched in horror as his wife and children were killed by a speeding truck as they crossed the street, he has no memory of the event and gets upset when people tell him he must remember. The man is most likely suffering from
    1. panic disorder
    2. post-traumatic stress disorder
    3. dissociative amnesia
    4. bipolar disorder
    5. deindividuation
  20. According to the Law of Effect, behaviors followed by negative consequences
    1. occur more frequently
    2. occur less frequently
    3. will never be performed again
    4. will be performed more forcefully
    5. are unpredictable
  21. The pastry chef ordinarily makes 15 apple turnovers in 15 minutes, but when culinary arts students are watching him, he makes 20 apple turnovers in 15 minutes. This exemplifies
    1. foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    2. social loafing
    3. social facilitation
    4. the bystander effect
    5. Type B behavior
  22. The part of the neuron that directs synthesis of neurotransmitters and proteins is the
    1. cell body
    2. dendrite
    3. axon
    4. axon terminal
    5. myelin sheath
  23. According to Erikson, those who look back at the end of their lives with regrets and the feeling that their lives have lacked fulfillment evidence unsuccessful resolution of the challenge of
    1. intimacy versus isolation
    2. identity versus role confusion
    3. integrity versus despair
    4. generativity versus stagnation
    5. industry versus inferiority
  24. Which of the following is the most reliable indicator of emotions across all cultures?
    1. hand gestures
    2. facial expressions
    3. voice intonation
    4. body posture
    5. smoothness of movements
  25. The more difference shown by the behavior of identical twins raised apart, the more the differences in their behavior can be attributed to their
    1. heritability
    2. genetic traits
    3. mutations
    4. coincidence
    5. environments
  26. All public institutions subscribe to all of the following ethical guidelines EXCEPT
    1. avoiding unnecessary deception to humans
    2. avoiding unnecessary pain to humans and other animals
    3. avoiding use of animals when computers are available
    4. protecting confidentiality
    5. having Institutional Review Boards approve all research conducted within their institutions
  27. Madison is a fifth grader who tries to listen to the teacher, but has difficulty focusing. She looks around the classroom while the teacher is talking and then does not know what to do when others are starting their assignments. Her symptoms are characteristic of which of the following?
    1. panic disorder
    2. post-traumatic stress disorder
    3. attention deficit disorder
    4. bipolar disorder
    5. antisocial personality
  28. Joan strongly believes in capital punishment. After discussing capital punishment with only other people who believe in capital punishment in a chat room, Joan is most likely to
    1. believe more strongly in capital punishment
    2. believe less strongly in capital punishment
    3. not have changed her views at all
    4. want more information about capital punishment before deciding how strongly she supports capital punishment
    5. not want to discuss capital punishment any more
  29. Answering multiple-choice questions is often easier than answering fill-in or completion questions, because multiple choice questions
    1. provide more retrieval cues
    2. enhance retention of information
    3. check memorization rather than critical thinking
    4. are definitional rather than conceptual
    5. are easier to encode than completion questions
  30. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus during
    1. acquisition trials
    2. generalization
    3. extinction trials
    4. spontaneous recovery
    5. operant conditioning
  31. According to Jean Piaget, egocentrism, animism, and trial-and-error learning are characteristic of the stage of development known as
    1. preoperational
    2. sensorimotor
    3. concrete operational
    4. adolescence
    5. formal operational
  32. Blinking, sneezing, flinching, and coughing are examples of the type of behavior called the
    1. instinct
    2. reflex
    3. habit
    4. thought
    5. arc
  33. Stephen is going through his second divorce. He thinks that no woman will ever love him again. His therapist points out to Stephen that his thinking is irrational and faulty. Which of the following therapies is the therapist employing?
    1. psychoanalysis
    2. systematic desensitization
    3. flooding
    4. rational emotive
    5. client-centered
  34. Delia was accepted to both Harvard University and Yale University and is having difficulty choosing which school to attend. With which of the following conflicts is she faced?
    1. frustration–aggression
    2. intrinsic–extrinsic
    3. approach–avoidance
    4. approach–approach
    5. avoidance–avoidance
  35. EEGs that consist primarily of alpha and beta waves are characteristic of
    1. consciousness
    2. stage 1 sleep
    3. stage 2 sleep
    4. stage 3 sleep
    5. stage 4 sleep
  36. A psychologist focusing on whether development occurs in stages is most interested in which of the following controversies?
    1. nature versus nurture
    2. continuity versus discontinuity
    3. stability versus change
    4. subjectivity versus objectivity
    5. individualism versus collectivism
  37. Collective unconscious, archetypes, and individuation are personality concepts most closely associated with
    1. Sigmund Freud
    2. Carl Jung
    3. B. F. Skinner
    4. Karen Horney
    5. Albert Bandura
  38. Which of the following is a hallucination?
    1. thinking you are President of the United States
    2. being sure that your boss is out to get you
    3. thinking this is 2010
    4. feeling extraordinarily happy and agitated one moment, then extraordinarily depressed the next
    5. hearing voices that are not actually there
  39. Stella remembered the order of the planets from the Sun by recalling the sentence, "My very educated mother just served us noodles." For Stella, this sentence is a
    1. chunking strategy
    2. mnemonic device
    3. peg system
    4. acoustic encoding sequence
    5. proactive interference inhibitor
  40. Which of the following is caused by a teratogen?
    1. Tay-Sachs disease
    2. Klinefelter's syndrome
    3. Turner's syndrome
    4. Down syndrome
    5. Fetal alcohol syndrome
  41. In classical conditioning the learner learns to associate the unconditioned stimulus with
    1. an unconditioned response
    2. a conditioned stimulus
    3. a conditioned response
    4. a negative reinforcer
    5. a punishment
  42. According to Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) theory, of the following stages, we are most susceptible to disease during
    1. resolution
    2. resistance
    3. alarm
    4. exhaustion
    5. extinction
  43. Jeanette locked the front door, then checked it by turning the knob. She checked it a second time. After walking halfway down the path to the street, Jeanette went back to the door and checked to make sure that it was locked. Her behavior appears to be
    1. psychotic
    2. schizophrenic
    3. obsessive
    4. compulsive
    5. manic
  44. Carlos could consistently differentiate the note middle C on the violin from middle C on the piano because of the difference in
    1. frequency
    2. primary wavelength
    3. amplitude
    4. timbre
    5. volume
  45. Hunger, thirst, and sex are most closely associated with stimulation of the
    1. pons
    2. cerebellum
    3. hypothalamus
    4. temporal lobes
    5. basal ganglia
  46. For which of the following disorders might a psychiatrist prescribe a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor such as Prozac® or Paxil®?
    1. manic
    2. depressive
    3. dissociative identity
    4. conversion
    5. disorganized schizophrenic
  47. Jared thinks that going to psychology lecture classes is a waste of time, and that you can do just as well in the course if you just read the review book, watch "Discovering Psychology," and take the tests. He decides to test his hypothesis with an experiment. The independent variable in his experiment is
    1. going to lecture classes
    2. going to lecture classes, reading the review book, and watching "Discovering Psychology"
    3. not going to lecture classes, reading the review book, and watching "Discovering Psychology"
    4. just taking tests
    5. doing as well on tests without going to class as with going to class
  48. In class, John's teacher tells him that she will give him the coin and bill for each picture he can correctly identify on the face of the penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half-dollar, dollar bill, and fivedollar bill. John cannot identify any of them although he has been handling money for 17 years. His inability to remember the pictures most likely results from
    1. confabulation
    2. failure to reconstruct
    3. failure to encode
    4. deep processing
    5. repression
  49. Stranded in a deserted area after a boating accident, Harry was able to survive by eating leaves and insects, and drinking water he boiled in a fire he made. According to Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Harry displayed a high level of which of the following intelligences?
    1. naturalistic
    2. interpersonal
    3. verbal-linguistic
    4. mathematical
    5. g
  50. Menarche occurs at about age
    1. 12 in males only
    2. 12 in females only
    3. 12 in both sexes
    4. 12 in females and 14 in males
    5. 50 in females only
  51. Amy's therapist shakes her head affirmatively and says, "Yes, uh huh," as Amy talks about her problems. Which of the following treatments did she experience?
    1. psychoanalysis
    2. behavior therapy
    3. humanistic therapy
    4. cognitive therapy
    5. existential therapy
  52. Lucille suffered a stroke last week and cannot recognize her children or grandchildren by looking at them. Of the following structures, her brain lesion is most likely in the
    1. cerebellum
    2. hypothalamus
    3. amygdala
    4. left cerebral cortex
    5. right cerebral cortex
  53. According to the Gestalt organizing principles of perception, when you look at, "i n car n a t e," you tend to notice the word car rather than in, nate, at, or ate, because of
    1. continuity
    2. the phi phenomenon
    3. similarity
    4. figure-ground
    5. proximity
  54. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
    1. food
    2. water
    3. money
    4. sex
    5. token economy
  55. An action potential involves the movement of
    1. glucose into the axon
    2. fats out of the axon terminal
    3. molecules in the synaptic gap
    4. sodium ions into the axon
    5. fluoride ions out of the axon
  56. Dr. Bonneau helped a company redesign its offices to raise morale and productivity of the employees. With which of the following subfields of psychology is Dr. Bonneau most likely affiliated?
    1. counseling
    2. educational
    3. industrial/organizational
    4. developmental
    5. social
  57. Shafi cited Tony's and David's 100% math test scores in providing evidence that boys do better in math than girls. His failure to recognize that seven girls in the class earned 100% while only two boys earned that score best exemplifies
    1. hindsight bias
    2. confirmation bias
    3. functional fixedness
    4. proactive interference
    5. retroactive interference
  58. Which of the following usually increases with age in healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 70?
    1. fluid intelligence
    2. crystallized intelligence
    3. g
    4. speededness
    5. IQ scores
  59. In general, the best presentation time between the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus to produce classical conditioning is
    1. delayed
    2. simultaneous
    3. trace
    4. backward
    5. temporal
  60. Which of the following is generally considered a disadvantage of longitudinal developmental research?
    1. It is extremely costly
    2. Members of the original study drop out over time
    3. The cohort effect
    1. I only
    2. II only
    3. III only
    4. I and II only
    5. I, II, and III
  61. After she used address stickers sent by a charity in the mail, Brittany felt obligated to mail a donation to the organization that sent the stickers. Brittany's behavior illustrates
    1. stereotyping
    2. the fundamental attribution error
    3. the mere exposure effect
    4. the reciprocity norm
    5. groupthink
  62. Which best represents the path of an impulse over a reflex arc?
    1. receptor, afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron, effector
    2. receptor, efferent neuron, interneuron, afferent neuron, affector
    3. sensory neuron, interneuron, afferent neuron, efferent neuron, effector
    4. effector, sensory neuron, afferent neuron, interneuron, receptor
    5. sensor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, efferent neuron, effector
  63. "Mommy gived me a cookie" best illustrates a basic understanding of
    1. phonemes
    2. prelinguistic speech
    3. holophrases
    4. grammar
    5. etymology
  64. Which of the following disorders is most likely related to the amount of light to which a susceptible person is exposed?
    1. seasonal affective disorder
    2. claustrophobia
    3. Alzheimer's disease
    4. catatonic schizophrenia
    5. disorganized schizophrenia
  65. Mr. Gordon suffered damage to the back of his right frontal lobe. As a result, he is unable to
    1. understand information he hears
    2. understand information he reads
    3. speak intelligibly
    4. move his left hand
    5. lift his right foot
  66. A comprehensive final examination in AP Psychology that consists of questions dealing solely with motivation and emotion, social psychology, and the biological basis of behavior units lacks
    1. content validity
    2. predictive validity
    3. test–retest reliability
    4. alternate-forms reliability
    5. standardization
  67. In a team tug of war, Ty did not pull as hard as he would have if he were pulling alone against one competitor. His behavior exemplifies
    1. deindividuation
    2. groupthink
    3. social loafing
    4. bystander effect
    5. self-serving bias
  68. Functionalists such as William James were mainly interested in
    1. the purpose of behavioral acts
    2. identifying the smallest unit of behavior
    3. the basic elements of consciousness
    4. teaching introspection
    5. studying the whole conscious experience
  69. Mayella believes that getting a good grade on an AP exam is a matter of luck. She most likely has
    1. high academic self-efficacy
    2. an internal locus of control
    3. an external locus of control
    4. high achievement motivation
    5. achieved self-actualization
  70. Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
    1. panic disorder
    2. hypochondriasis
    3. agoraphobia
    4. post-traumatic stress disorder
    5. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  71. Which of the following is not considered a primary facial expression?
    1. surprise
    2. disgust
    3. anger
    4. love
    5. fear
  72. The most common form of Down syndrome results during sex cell formation and fertilization from
    1. three copies of chromosome 19
    2. three copies of chromosome 21
    3. loss of a chromosome
    4. failure of the separation of XX
    5. failure of the separation of XY
  73. In time-out, a disruptive child who wants to stay with his/her class is removed from the classroom. This exemplifies
    1. positive reinforcement
    2. negative reinforcement
    3. positive punishment
    4. omission training
    5. classical conditioning
  74. According to activation-synthesis theory,
    1. the brain counteracts a strong positive emotion by evoking a negative emotion
    2. dreams result from the mind's attempt to make sense of random neural activity from the brainstem
    3. happiness depends on comparing one's present circumstances with one's past circumstances
    4. particular facial expressions induce particular emotional experiences
    5. hypnosis induces a dissociated state of consciousness
  75. According to the opponent process theory of emotions,
    1. red emotions are followed by green emotions
    2. happiness and unhappiness combine to keep someone relatively stable over a lifetime
    3. repetitions of an emotion-arousing event strengthen the opposing emotion
    4. opposing emotions after a primary emotion are always weaker than the primary one
    5. judgments of emotions are relative to a neutral level defined by prior experience
  76. After dealing kindly with several customers who acted very rudely toward her, the clerk was impatient with her next customer. The tendency of that customer to think that the clerk is a very impatient person rather than just having a bad day exemplifies
    1. stereotyping
    2. the fundamental attribution error
    3. the mere exposure effect
    4. the reciprocity norm
    5. groupthink
  77. Abnormal behavior can be defined as maladaptive behavior according to
    1. biologists
    2. behaviorists
    3. psychoanalysts
    4. humanists
    5. cognitivists
  78. Use of brainstorming to solve a problem best encourages which of the following?
    1. divergent thinking
    2. convergent thinking
    3. deductive reasoning
    4. groupthink
    5. conformity
  79. According to trait theorists, such as Hans Eysenck, the basis for personality is
    1. conflicting sources of psychic energy
    2. the distinctive human ability to act purposefully and to shape our own destiny
    3. the interactions between thought and the environment, which influence behavior
    4. stable sources of individual differences that characterize an individual, based on an interaction of nature and nurture
    5. evolutionary adaptation
  80. In response to a column printed in newspapers throughout the United States, an advice columnist received over 28,000 responses. Over 75% of respondents said that if they had it to do over again, they would not have children. The columnist concludes that most parents are sorry that they had children. For which of the following reasons is her conclusion not valid?
    1. Her participants were not randomly assigned in her study.
    2. The number of respondents from across the country was too small.
    3. The study was not replicated.
    4. Her sample may not have been representative of the population.
    5. The study should have been a double-blind study.
  81. According to social learning theory, gender identity results primarily from
    1. chromosomal differences in the sex chromosomes and hormones secreted during prenatal development
    2. resolution of the Oedipal complex resulting in identification with the same-sex parent
    3. observation and imitation of significant role models
    4. consistent reinforcement of genderappropriate behaviors and punishment of gender-inappropriate behaviors
    5. labeling of a child as a boy or a girl
  82. Aisha is a beautiful, black teenager. If she is typical, she most likely believes that
    1. white teenagers are superior to black teenagers
    2. Asian teenagers are superior to black teenagers
    3. Hispanic teenagers are superior to black teenagers
    4. Hispanic teenagers are superior to Asian teenagers
    5. black teenagers are superior to white teenagers
  83. The position on the basilar membrane at which waves reach their peak depends on the frequency of a tone, according to which theory?
    1. opponent-process
    2. trichromatic
    3. place
    4. volley
    5. frequency
  84. Lev Vygotsky's approach to the study of cognitive development was
    1. psychodynamic
    2. behavioral
    3. biological
    4. sociocultural
    5. evolutionary
  85. The left cerebral hemisphere is specialized for which of the following functions?
    1. verbal, mathematical, and recognizing emotional expressions
    2. mathematical, spatial, and musical
    3. verbal, analytic, and mathematical
    4. mathematical, spatial, and analytic
    5. spatial, musical, and identifying faces
  86. The contingency model explains classical conditioning from which of the following perspectives?
    1. behavioral
    2. psychoanalytic
    3. cognitive
    4. humanistic
    5. biomedical
  87. All people have essentially the same set of traits, differing only in terms of the extent to which they show each trait, according to which of the following personality theories?
    1. nomothetic
    2. idiographic
    3. Freudian
    4. somatotype
    5. biological
  88. After Tamika complained to her mother about how little she has, Tamika and her mother went to a soup kitchen to volunteer to serve dinner to the homeless. After serving 120 dinners, Tamika told her mother how happy she is that they can afford to buy delicious foods she loves. Tamika's increased perception that she is happy is best explained by applying which of the following theories?
    1. relative deprivation
    2. adaptation-level
    3. Yerkes-Dodson arousal
    4. diathesis-stress
    5. attribution
  89. Standardized tests are
    1. any examination given by your state or country
    2. all examinations with exactly the same directions
    3. tests with norms, which indicate average, high, and low scores for the test
    4. tests that are given year after year without being released or returned
    5. tests for which a person's performance can be compared with a pilot group
  90. The most common somatic nervous system neurotransmitter to cause muscle contractions is
    1. acetylcholine
    2. dopamine
    3. endorphins
    4. epinephrine
    5. GABA
  91. The rooting reflex is characterized by neonates
    1. turning their heads toward stimuli when touched on their cheeks
    2. withdrawing from painful stimuli
    3. drawing up legs and arching their backs in response to sudden noises
    4. grasping objects that press against their palms
    5. fanning their toes when their soles are stimulated
  92. Which coefficient indicates the strongest correlation?
    1. -1.00
    2. -.33
    3. 0.00
    4. ?.50
    5. ?.89
  93. According to gate-control theory, which condition tends to close the gate?
    1. anxiety
    2. depression
    3. focusing on the pain
    4. electrical stimulation
    5. insomnia
  94. People generally send higher contributions to charities when check-off boxes on the response card the charity sends to donors suggest $25, $35, $50, other; rather than $10, $15, $25, other. This illustrates the
    1. anchoring effect
    2. availability heuristic
    3. representativeness heuristic
    4. mental set
    5. serial position effect
  95. Mechanical energy is transduced to electrochemical energy by
    1. glandular effectors
    2. muscular effectors
    3. pressure receptors
    4. rods and cones
    5. thermoreceptors
  96. Which of the following is not a basic somatosensation?
    1. pain
    2. touch
    3. cold
    4. warmth
    5. itch
  97. All of the following are characteristic of physiological arousal EXCEPT
    1. dilation of the pupils
    2. increase in salivation
    3. increase in perspiration
    4. increase in secretion of stress hormones
    5. decrease in peristalsis
  98. Nearsightedness results from
    1. too much curvature of the cornea and lens
    2. too little curvature of the cornea and lens
    3. too much curvature of the iris and lens
    4. too little curvature of the iris and lens
    5. lack of aqueous or vitreous humor
  99. Of the following theories, the presence of Hilgard's "hidden observer" best supports
    1. dissociation
    2. opponent process
    3. activation-synthesis
    4. diathesis-stress
    5. evolution
  100. Although many studies regarding the effects of a particular herb on memory have been conducted, results of any one study have been inconclusive. An overall conclusion might be reached by performing
    1. meta-analysis
    2. revising the data from one of the experiments
    3. calculating the statistical significance of each study
    4. cross-cultural analysis
    5. factor analysis
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