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# Relativistic Effects Help (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Sep 18, 2011

## Mass Distortion

Another interesting effect of relativistic speeds is an increase in the masses of objects as they move faster and faster. This increase occurs to the same extent as the decrease in length and the slowing down of time.

### Point Of View: Mass

If we travel inside a space ship, regardless of its speed, the masses of all the objects in the ship with us appear normal as long as our ship is not accelerating. However, from the vantage point of Earth, the mass of the ship and the masses of all the atoms inside it increase as its speed increases.

Let m be the mass of the moving ship as a multiple of its mass when it is stationary relative to an observer. Let u be the speed of the ship as a fraction of the speed of light. Then

m = 1/(1 – u 2)1/2 = (1 – u 2)– 1/2

This is the same as the factor k that we defined a little while ago. It is always greater than or equal to 1.

Look again at Fig. 16-4. As the space ship moves faster, it scrunches up. Imagine now that it also becomes more massive. The combination of smaller size and greater mass produces a dramatic increase in density at relativistic speeds.

Suppose that the rest mass (the mass when stationary) of our ship is 10 metric tons. When it speeds by at half the speed of light, its mass increases to a little more than 11 metric tons. At 80 percent of the speed of light, its mass is roughly 17 metric tons. At 95 percent of the speed of light, the ship’s mass is about 32 metric tons. At 99.9 percent of the speed of light, the ship’s mass is more than 220 metric tons. And so it can go indefinitely. As the speed of the ship approaches the speed of light, its mass grows larger and larger without limit.

## Speed Is Self-limiting

It’s tempting to suppose that the mass of an object, if it could be accelerated all the way up to the speed of light, would become infinite. After all, as u approaches 1 (or 100 percent), the value of m in the preceding formula increases without limit. However, it’s one thing to talk about what happens as a measured phenomenon or property approaches some limit; it is another thing entirely to talk about what happens when that limit is actually reached, assuming that it can be reached.

No one has ever seen a photon at rest. No one has ever seen a space ship moving at the speed of light, nor will they ever. No finite amount of energy can accelerate any real object to the speed of light. This is so because of the way in which the mass increases as the speed of an object approaches the speed of light. Even if it were possible to move a real object at the speed of light relative to some point of observation, the mass-increase factor, as determined by the preceding formula, would be meaningless. To calculate it, we would have to divide by zero, and division by zero is not defined. (If you tell a theoretical mathematician that “one over zero equals infinity,” you will get, at the very least, a raised eyebrow.)

The more massive a speeding space ship becomes, the more powerful is the rocket thrust necessary to get it moving faster. As a space ship approaches the speed of light, its mass becomes arbitrarily great. This makes it harder and harder to give it any more speed. Using a mathematical technique called integral calculus , astronomers and physicists have proven that no finite amount of energy can propel a space ship to the speed of light. The mass increases too fast. The function “blows up.”

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