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Basics Multiple Choice Review Questions for AP Chemistry (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Feb 8, 2011

Answers and Explanations

Here are the answers and explanations to the review questions. Go through each one. Don't memorize; strive to understand.

  1. C—All the other elements are nonmetals. Nonmetals usually form monatomic anions.
  2. A—The element can not be a metal (Na) or a noble gas (He). A nonmetal that can have a +6 oxidation state is needed. P has a maximum of +5. Cl may be +5 or +7. Se, in column 6A, can easily be +6.
  3. A—Based on their positions on the periodic table:
      C                 +4 to –4
      F                 –1 and 0 (element)
      O                 –2 to 0
      Ca                 +2 and 0
      Na                 +1 and 0
  4. E—Isotopes MUST have the same number of protons. Different isotopes have different numbers of neutrons.
  5. A—All the others are in decreasing order.
  6. B—In general, the element furthest from F on the periodic table will have the lowest electronegativity. There are exceptions.
  7. E—The very large iodine atom gains an electron to make it even larger.
  8. D—The definition of electron affinity is: the energy change when a ground-state gaseous atom adds an electron.
  9. D—The more electrons removed, the higher the values should be. The large increase between the first and second ionization energies indicates a change in electron shell. The element, X, has only 1 valence electron. This is true for Na. For the other elements the numbers of valence electrons are: Mg—2; Cl—7; Al—3; and Si—4.
  10. E—The increase in the number of protons in the nucleus has a greater attraction for the electrons being added in the same energy level. Thus, the electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus and the size slightly decreases.
  11. A—The only other gas is radon, and it is inert.
  12. B—Sodium and radium are metals on the left side of the periodic table. Metals on the left side of the periodic table are very reactive.
  13. B—Ferrate(III) means Fe3+, while trisoxalato means (C2O4)3 6–; three potassiums are needed to balance the charge.
  14. A—B is blue; C is orange; D is pink to red; and E is green.
  15. A—Chlorine is a gas; all the others are solids.
  16. D—Magnesium is present in chlorophyll.
  17. E—Aluminum forms a protective oxide coating.
  18. B—Gallium is one of the elements that will improve the conductivity of germanium.
  19. A—B is purple; C is green; D is colorless; and E is pink to red.
  20. A—Fractional crystallization works because the less soluble material separates first.
  21. C—A could be Li or Sr; B is Ca; D is K; and E is Na.
  22. C—A weak base with water to disperse the heat is the best choice.
  23. B—A solution containing a colored substance is needed.
  24. A—Separation of materials in solution is normally not simple. Reverse osmosis would also work.
  25. A—Rutherford proved the existence of the nucleus.

 

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