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The Biochemical Basis of Heredity Practice Problems

By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Aug 19, 2011

Review the following concepts if needed:

Problems

Vocabulary   For each of the following definitions, give the appropriate term and spell it correctly. Terms are single words unless indicated otherwise.

  1. The method of DNA replication in which each strand of the double-helical molecule serves as a template against which a complementary new strand is synthesized.
  2. A genetic locus that serves as a recognition site for RNA polymerase attachment.
  3. A group of three nucleotides in mRNA that together specify an amino acid.
  4. A short RNA sequence onto which DNA polymerase III adds deoxyribonucleotides during bacterial DNA replication.
  5. Development of a wild-type (normal) trait in an organism or cell containing two different mutations combined in a hybrid diploid or a heterokaryon.
  6. A spiral secondary structure in parts of many peptide chains, constituting the secondary level of organization. (One or two words.)
  7. The process whereby RNA is synthesized from a DNA template.
  8. The single-stranded pieces of DNA produced by discontinuous replication of double-stranded DNA. (Two words.)
  9. Regions within an eukaryotic primary transcript that are removed during processing of mRNA.
  10. Removal or reversal of damaged DNA by a light-dependent enzyme.

Multiple-Choice Questions   Choose the one best answer.

  1. A genetic unit that codes for the amino acid sequence of a complete polypeptide chain is most closely related to
    1. an anticodon
    2. a promoter
    3. a gene
    4. a codon
    5. a homotrimer
  2. Without referring to a table of mRNA codons, solve the following problem. Given a hypothetical segment of antisense strand DNA 3'-GGC AAC CTT GGC 5', the corresponding polypeptide segment could be
    1. H2N-gly-asn-leu-pro-COOH
    2. HOOC-his-arg-ser-tyr-NH2
    3. HOOC-asp-val-ile-gln-NH2
    4. H2N-met-thr-phe-cys-COOH
    5. H2N-pro-leu-glu-pro-COOH
  3. Given the antisense strand DNA codon 3' TAC 5', the anticodon that pairs with the corresponding mRNA codon could be
    1. 3' CAT 5'
    2. 5' AUG 3'
    3. 3' UAC 5'
    4. 5' GUA 3'
    5. none of the above
  4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of cellular RNA?
    1. contains uracil
    2. is single-stranded
    3. is much shorter than DNA
    4. serves as template for its own synthesis
    5. contains ribose
  5. A mutation in the codon UCG to UAG (Table 3-1) is be described as
    1. a missense mutation
    2. a neutral mutation
    3. a silent mutation
    4. a nonsense mutation
    5. a frame shift mutation
  6. An amino acid that cannot participate in alpha-helical formation is
    1. proline
    2. histidine
    3. phenylalanine
    4. threonine
    5. more than one of the above
  7. A coding system in which each word may be coded by a variety of symbols or groups of letters (e.g., the genetic code) is said to be
    1. archaic
    2. redundant
    3. degenerate
    4. polysyllabic
    5. amplified
  8. An amino-acyl synthetase is responsible for
    1. formation of a peptide bond
    2. attaching an amino group to an organic acid
    3. causing a peptide chain to form secondary and higher structural organizations
    4. movement of tRNA molecules from A to P sites on a ribosome
    5. joining an amino acid to a tRNA
  9. The step in the flow of genetic information wherein DNA is copied into mRNA is called
    1. translation
    2. reverse transcription
    3. replication
    4. transcription
    5. polymerization
  10. The growing polypeptide chain is first attached to a tRNA molecule in which site of the ribosome?
    1. A site
    2. B site
    3. P site
    4. anticodon loop
    5. active site

Answers

Vocabulary

  1. semiconservative
  2. promoter
  3. codon
  4. primer
  5. complementation
  6. alpha helix
  7. transcription
  8. Okazaki fragments
  9. introns
  10. photoreactivation

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. c
  2. e
  3. c
  4. d
  5. d
  6. a
  7. c
  8. e
  9. d
  10. c
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