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Biology Practice Test

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Aug 24, 2011

Biology Practice Test

Directions: A good score is at least 75 correct. It’s best to have a friend check your score the first time, so you won’t memorize the answers if you want to take the test again.

1. Modern biology is literally the

(a) “Removal of organisms”

(b) “Study of life”

(c) “Examination of objects under the microscope”

(d) “Study of Nature”

(e) “Love of knowledge”

2. Biological Order essentially represents

(a) Very organized patterns seen in living things

(b) Too much chaos in the affairs of Nature

(c) The exact opposite of Body Organization

(d) Contradictory things to different human observers

(e) A deficiency of regular arrangements between body parts

3. The head, neck, and black spots of a giraffe

(a) Microbial physiology

(b) Simple structures

(c) Animal functions

(d) Animal anatomy

(e) Plant regularity

4. The “process of cutting” the body “up or apart”

(a) Biology

(b) Geology

(c) Paleontology

(d) Bacteriology

(e) Anatomy

5. You might consider body function as being what corresponding part of a sentence?

(a) Verb

(b) Adverb

(c) Adjective

(d) Noun

(e) Object

6. ______ only occurs within living organisms

(a) Gross anatomy

(b) Body structure

(c) Physiology

(d) Microanatomy

(e) Occupation of space

7. Rising of oral body temperature to a high of about 99.6 degrees F, and a falling down to a low of about 97.6 degrees F

(a) Normal range

(b) Changing of anatomy

(c) Mean (average) value of oral body temperature

(d) Absolute constancy of body temperature

(e) Complete chaos of body temperature

8. A characteristic found only in living things

(a) Definite patterns of structural arrangement

(b) Metabolism and excretion

(c) Dynamic changes in function over time

(d) Generation of heat associated with movement

(e) Response to changes in the environment

9. Rising of oral body temperature far beyond 99.6 degrees F, or falling of it far below 97.6 degrees F

(a) Biological Order

(b) Homeostasis

(c) Denoted by a living giraffe with black spots

(d) Biological Disorder

(e) Stable pattern of the living internal environment

10. The study of the relationships among different organisms, and their interactions with the external environment

(a) Anthropology

(b) High school physics classes

(c) Physiology

(d) Anatomy

(e) Ecology

11. The icon of a dead spider and its web

(a) Homeostasis

(b) Biological Disorder within an organism

(c) Biological Disorder extending beyond the individual organism

(d) Maintenance of ecological systematic

(e) A high degree of Environmental Order

12. The world’s first great biologist and Father of Natural History

(a) James Dean

(b) Frances Crick

(c) Plato

(d) Aristotle

(e) Little Lord Fauntleroy

13. Natural History can best be considered as:

(a) A concentration upon the “household affairs” of an organism

(b) Primarily a study of the Fossil Record

(c) The comprehensive study of all living creatures

(d) The exact opposite of Modern Biology

(e) Genetics, only

14. The _____ method starts with a hypothesis (educated guess or hunch)

(a) Natural History

(b) Experimental

(c) Geological

(d) Taxidermy

(e) Classification

15. Literally translates from Latin to mean a “control of sameness”

(a) Homeostasis

(b) Normal range

(c) All aspects of human physiology

(d) Metabolism

(e) Hypothesis

16. The Father of Experimental Physiology and originator of the concept of homeostasis

(a) Aristotle

(b) Gregor Mendel

(c) Claude Duvall

(d) Charles Darwin

(e) Claude Bernard

17. A stacked Pyramid of Life was used in this book to symbolize the

(a) Interactions between body structure and body function

(b) Various levels of biological organization

(c) States of Biological Disorder, primarily

(d) Existence of anatomy & physiology at just a single level of complexity

(e) Collapse of most ecosystems, given enough time

18. The simplest and smallest level of biological organization

(a) Community

(b) Atoms

(c) Cells

(d) Tissues

(e) Subatomic particles

19. The lowest living level of biological organization

(a) Population

(b) Organelle

(c) Cell

(d) Tissue

(e) Organism

20. A group of individuals of the same species that live together in the same place

(a) Ecosystem

(b) Community

(c) Population

(d) Organism

(e) Tissue

21. Homeostasis is restricted to what portion of the Great Pyramid of Life?

(a) Area beyond the community but below the ecosystem

(b) Organism and below

(c) Cell and organelle

(d) Tissues and organs

(e) Atom and below

22. A population balance maintained over time

(a) Relative constancy of an organism

(b) Homeostasis

(c) Normal range

(d) Ecological relationships

(e) Regular physiology

23. Mammals are literally

(a) Animals with milk-giving “breasts”

(b) Creatures who “walk freely”

(c) Animals with “backbones”

(d) Organisms having “internal order”

(e) Species that “reproduce” themselves using sex

24. Cosmic Order

(a) The increasing tilt and speed at which solar systems keep moving away from one another

(b) The ongoing Death of Stars

(c) Creation of Earth’s solar system

(d) Early absence of life on our world

(e) Constant disturbances that may kill off an organism

25. Sometime between 3.5 billion and 4 billion years ago

(a) Dawn of Life

(b) The original “Big Bang” occurred

(c) Appearance of the Milky Way galaxy

(d) Creation of our planet

(e) First appearance of H 2 O in Earth’s atmosphere

26. Threw doubt upon the Spontaneous Generation Theory

(a) Charles Montgomery

(b) Francesco Reid

(c) Karl Marx

(d) Louis Pasteur

(e) Groucho Marx

27. “Life only occurs because it has been produced by other living organisms”

(a) Recessive gene hypothesis

(b) Theory of Biogenesis

(c) Theory of Evolution

(d) Law of Attraction between unlike charges

(e) Notion of a primordial soup

28. Among the oldest-known fossils

(a) Filament-shaped ancient bacteria preserved within stromatolite rocks

(b) Dead bee bodies encased in amber

(c) Imprints of ferns in Western Sandstone deposits

(d) Calcified remains of gigantic fish

(e) Mummified skeletons of early human ape-men

29. A process where living organisms utilize the energy in sunlight to make sugar

(a) Glycolysis

(b) Aerobic metabolism

(c) Photosynthesis

(d) Chlorophyll molecules

(e) Oxygen consumption

30. Types of cells that probably came into existence before cells with “kernels”

(a) Vertebrate

(b) Embryonic

(c) Zygote

(d) Prokaryotes

(e) Aerobes

31. Organelle carrying out most aerobic metabolism within cells

(a) Nucleus

(b) Ribosome

(c) Mitochondrion

(d) Plasma membrane

(e) Centriole

32. “But with the coming of multicellular creatures, ______ of body structure and function arrived”

(a) Generality

(b) Merging

(c) Specialization

(d) Destruction

(e) Denucleation

33. Type of cell containing a nucleus surrounded by its own membrane

(a) Stromatolite

(b) Filament

(c) Prokaryote

(d) Dry

(e) Eukaryote

34. The ______ were among the first pioneering multicellular eukaryotes

(a) Ferns

(b) Fungi

(c) Algae

(d) Sea gulls

(e) Squids

35. Fungus

(a) Greenish plant engaging in photosynthesis

(b) Aerobic organism using glycolysis to obtain energy

(c) Fertilized ovum of a mammal

(d) Plant-like organism that feeds on living or dead organic matter

(e) Greenish-blue anaerobes whose cells are filled with chlorophyll

36. Any “living, breathing” multicellular organism that is not a plant or fungus

(a) Microbe

(b) Animal

(c) Reptile

(d) Fish

(e) Duck

37. Delicate jellyfish gracefully floating in the Pre-Cambrian seas

(a) Pathogenic plants

(b) Chordates

(c) Vertebrates

(d) Fungi

(e) Invertebrates

38. Time of 500–200 million years ago, with first vertebrates, land plants, and insects

(a) Cenozoic Era

(b) Paleozoic Era

(c) Mesozoic Era

(d) Jurassic Park Period

(e) “Age of the Terrible Lizards”

39. Time in the Fossil Record when dinosaur bones were laid down

(a) Dawn of Life

(b) Pre-Cambrian Era

(c) Paleozoic Era

(d) Cosmic Creation

(e) Mesozoic Era

40. Possible explanation offered for the relatively sudden extinction of the dinosaurs

(a) Law of Hidden Evil

(b) Might makes right!

(c) Impact hypothesis

(d) Cosmic Consciousness

(e) Alien invasion hypothesis

41. Appearance of Homo sapiens

(a) About 400,000 to 1 million years ago

(b) The Ice Age

(c) Carboniferous Era

(d) Stromatolite Period

(e) Fish-like Age

42. Monkeys, apes, and humans

(a) Amphibians

(b) Reptiles

(c) Urochordates

(d) Primates

(e) Pterosaurs

43. Stated the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

(a) James Watson

(b) Charles O’Connor

(c) Charles Darwin

(d) Gregor Mendel

(e) Francis Crick

44. By adaptation, it is meant that

(a) The external environment provides a larger copy which animal genes follow

(b) Certain patterns of Biological Order make particular organisms “more fit” to survive in a given environment

(c) A gradual process of destruction is unfolding

(d) Natural Selection causes all body structures to deteriorate

(e) “Eat-or-be eaten” always prevails!

45. Main builders of order or pattern at the chemical level

(a) Organelles

(b) Glucose molecules

(c) Chemical bonds

(d) Amino groups

(e) Cell autolyzers

46. “Like dissolves like” suggests that

(a) Solutions can be composed of any combination of contributing particles

(b) Solvents dissolve solutes with similar bonding and/or electrical charge to their own

(c) Solvents will just break down solutions with oppositely charged particles

(d) Solutes, not solvents, really “like” to do the “dissolving”!

(e) Neither solutes nor solvents can combine to produce solutions

47. A substance that breaks down into ions when placed into water

(a) Carbohydrate

(b) Electrolyte

(c) Any compound

(d) Organic molecule

(e) Hydrocarbon

48. Carbon atoms create highly orderly structural skeletons because they

(a) Easily mix with both NaCl and H 2 O

(b) Readily form covalent bonds with one another

(c) Push water molecules against one another to force them to create mist

(d) Exist in the liquid state

(e) Usually diffuse away without leaving any part of them behind

49. Proteins that speed up many chemical reactions

(a) Antibodies

(b) Hemoglobins

(c) Enzymes

(d) Lipids

(e) C–C complexes

50. A group of fats and fat-like hydrocarbons that are not soluble in water

(a) Insulins

(b) Carbohydrates

(c) Vitamins

(d) Lipids

(e) Proteins

51. “Carbon–water” molecules which include valuable sugars as body fuels

(a) Nucleic acids

(b) Actin filaments

(c) Lipids

(d) ATPs

(e) Carbohydrates

52. _______ is an important type of simple sugar molecule that is found in the human bloodstream

(a) Glucose

(b) Glycogen

(c) Glucagon

(d) Glucosamine

(e) Pancreatic hydrase

53. The ______ acids derive their name from their occurrence within the cell “kernel”

(a) Fatty

(b) Amino

(c) Nucleic

(d) Nitrogenous

(e) Acetic

54. An abbreviation for ribonucleic acid

(a) Ribonuca

(b) RNA

(c) RBNA

(d) RBA

(e) Rib-Nucle-Ac

55. Occurs as a twisted ladder or double helix, with genes occurring along its length

(a) RNA

(b) Deoxyribose

(c) Deoxyribonucleic acid

(d) Viral protein coats

(e) A film of fungi

56. The ability to do work

(a) Metabolism

(b) Differentiation

(c) Diffusion

(d) Mitosis

(e) Energy

57. Free energy that helps particles “move”

(a) Potential

(b) Stored

(c) ATP

(d) Enzymatic

(e) Kinetic

58. High-energy phosphate bonds within the ATP molecule

(a) Non-reducing

(b) Potential energy storage

(c) ATPases

(d) Nucleic

(e) Aerobic

59. A continual process between energy storage and energy release that occurs in cells

(a) Carbon–glucose conversion

(b) Hydrogen and amino acid transfer

(c) ATP–ADP Cycle

(d) Cellular phagocytosis

(e) Active immunity

60. A “condition of building up”

(a) Anabolism

(b) Glycolysis

(c) Catabolism

(d) Metabolism

(e) Egestion

61. Heterotroph

(a) An organism that produces its own energy

(b) Creature that consumes other organic foodstuffs for its nourishment

(c) Multicellular, free-living plant

(d) A type of molecule that is different from others

(e) An organism that feeds upon its own flesh!

62. The “process of breaking down sweets”

(a) Glycolysis

(b) Calvin Cycle

(c) Hydrolysis

(d) Photosynthesis

(e) Dehydration

63. Cellular respiration is

(a) Usually anaerobic

(b) Sometimes fatal

(c) Aerobic breakdown of organic molecules

(d) Always the same as photosynthesis

(e) Totally dependent upon chlorophyll

64. Krebs Cycle

(a) Occurs along the cristae of mitochondria

(b) Takes place in the animal cell nucleus

(c) Breaks down the pyruvic acids produced by glycolysis

(d) Is named for Kathy Krebs

(e) Results in 55 ATPs per glucose molecule consumed

65. “The cell is the basic unit of all living things”

(a) Phlogiston Theory

(b) Cloning Hypothesis

(c) Krebs Ideology

(d) Mendel’s Model

(e) Modern Cell Theory

66. “Colored bodies” containing DNA

(a) Genes

(b) Nuclei

(c) Mitochondria

(d) Chromosomes

(e) Lysosomes

67. During the process of transcription

(a) DNA codons are sequentially destroyed

(b) Glucose is converted into CO 2 and water

(c) Exposed DNA codons are used to make a messenger RNA molecule

(d) Cell division is replaced by protein synthesis

(e) Messenger RNA is matched with transfer RNA

68. Simple diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion are all classified as types of

(a) Active transport

(b) Pinocytosis

(c) Respiratory systems

(d) Passive transport systems

(e) Phagocytosis

69. Phase of the Cell Cycle that occurs “between” cell divisions

(a) Meiosis

(b) Interphase

(c) Prophase

(d) Metaphase

(e) Telophase

70. The division of paired, duplicated chromosomes into single, identical, unpaired chromosomes

(a) Cephalization

(b) Mitosis

(c) Melanomiasis

(d) Meiosis

(e) Facilitated diffusion

71. All single-celled organisms belong to either of these two kingdoms

(a) Animalia or Plantae

(b) Fungi or Plantae

(c) Protista or Monera

(d) Bacteria or Plantae

(e) Monera or Animalia

72. Usually consists of two or more species belonging to the same “stock or kind”

(a) Population

(b) Genus

(c) Family

(d) Order

(e) Class

73. A kingdom consists of a group of related

(a) Cousins

(b) Organelles

(c) Plants

(d) Relatives

(e) Phyla

74. A virus

(a) Living sphere-or-rod-shaped organism

(b) Part of every living cell

(c) Important component of the mitochondrion

(d) Helps its host cell survive and gain energy

(e) Non-living superchemical that parasitizes and thus “poisons” cells

75. In a condition of endosymbiosis, two organisms

(a) Of different species live together, one inside of the body of the other

(b) Survive and reproduce completely separately

(c) Fight each other to exist!

(d) Are completely passive and totally unaffected by the other’s existence

(e) Bond together as sexual pair mates

76. The fruiting body of a fungus

(a) Mushroom

(b) Spores

(c) Hyphae

(d) Basidia

(e) Gonada

77. The vascular plants or tracheophytes

(a) Have bodies containing hollow tubes and dense patterns of leaf veins

(b) Bryophytes

(c) Spongy cap mushrooms

(d) Monera

(e) Lack internal vessels or leaf veins

78. Gymnosperms

(a) Mosses and liverworts

(b) Sperms that work out in a gym!

(c) Liverleaf or hepatica

(d) Ferns with fronds

(e) Vascular plants with “naked seeds”

79. _______ means “a conditioning of lessening,” wherein one parent cell divides into two daughter cells, each possessing only half its number of chromosomes

(a) Meiosis

(b) Microspore packing

(c) Pollination

(d) Mitosis

(e) Halitosis

80. The “animals” whose bodies contain “true” tissues

(a) Parazoans

(b) Protozoans

(c) Corollas

(d) Eumetazoans

(e) Mitochondria

81. The lobster body is said to have a high degree of bilateral symmetry, because

(a) It lacks a stiffening backbone

(b) Two wrongs don’t make a right!

(c) It has a rough balance of various “rays” that project from the same center

(d) The right and left halves are essentially mirror images of one another

(e) Both sides never seem to “measure together” in the same way

82. The “outer skin” covering the gastrula

(a) Endoderm

(b) Cristae

(c) Epidermis

(d) Ectoderm

(e) Mesoderm

83. The coelomates (such as earthworms)

(a) Possess bodies with no central cavity

(b) Always breathe with two lungs

(c) Have bodies containing a central cavity around the digestive tract

(d) Usually have a visceral mass plus mantle

(e) Include echinoderms with soft, smooth skin

84. Invertebrates with jointed bodies and “jointed feet”

(a) Arthropods

(b) Sea slugs

(c) Clams and oysters

(d) Petunia plants

(e) Common plantain

85. Spiders and their relatives

(a) Bivalves

(b) Arachnids

(c) Crustaceans

(d) Chilopods

(e) Diplopods

86. There are more species of _______ than species of all other types of animals, combined

(a) Trout

(b) Mollusks

(c) Trilobites

(d) Insects

(e) Ants

87. An ancient forerunner of the vertebral column that supports and stiffens the body

(a) Cranium

(b) Notochord

(c) Umbilical cord

(d) Spine

(e) Urochord

88. Literally, this Class is for the “birds”

(a) Aves

(b) Reptilia

(c) Agnatha

(d) Placodermi

(e) Amphibia

89. Outermost layer of the skin or integument

(a) Dermis

(b) Subdermis

(c) Osteoid

(d) Epidermis

(e) Keratin

90. Thermoregulation

(a) Technical term for widening of vessels

(b) Disruption of homeostasis

(c) Another name for radiation

(d) A process of bone support

(e) Control of body heat or temperature

91. In humans, the _______ comprises many bones and joints

(a) Endoskeleton

(b) Carapace

(c) Exoskeleton

(d) Fibrous connective tissue

(e) Endomysium

92. Ossification

(a) Muscular contraction

(b) Process of bone formation

(c) Elimination of unusable food residue

(d) Respiration plus ventilation

(e) Snapping of intervertebral joints

93. Current explanation of how muscles produce body movement

(a) Law of Diminishing Returns

(b) Sliding Filament Theory

(c) Neuromuscular Junction

(d) Tales of the epimysium

(e) Motor Pathway Formation

94. The hypothalamus of the brain contains a number of _______ for homeostasis

(a) Visceral effectors

(b) Proprioceptors

(c) Motor neurons

(d) Control centers

(e) Primary visual areas

95. Glands of “internal” secretion of hormones into the bloodstream

(a) Exocrine

(b) Target cells

(c) Endocrine

(d) Sweat

(e) Sympathetic

96. Organ system that includes the heart, blood, and blood vessels

(a) Pulmonary

(b) Digestive

(c) Genitourinary

(d) Cardiovascular

(e) Lymphatic-Immune

97. The reticuloendothelial (R-E) system

(a) The lymph nodes plus thymus gland

(b) A “little network” of lymphatic vessels lined by flat, scale-like cells, along with a collection of related organs

(c) Wandering macrophages and red bone marrow

(d) Just a bunch of dead-ended lymphatic capillaries

(e) The spleen and its attachments

98. Pulmonary ventilation differs from respiration in that

(a) Pulmonary ventilation is the sum of inspiration plus expiration, whereas respiration is simply gas exchange between various body compartments

(b) Pulmonary ventilation involves both gas exchange and removal of stale air from the body

(c) Respiration only involves gas exchange between the air in the lung alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

(d) Pulmonary ventilation only involves the upper respiratory pathway lying above both lungs

(e) Inspiration, but not ventilation, requires the bulk flow of air

99. Digestion differs from absorption in the following way

(a) Digestion is the movement of material from the interior of the digestive tube into the bloodstream, whereas absorption is the breakdown of foodstuffs

(b) Digestion is the chemical and physical breakdown of food, whereas absorption is the movement of nutrient particles from the tube into the bloodstream

(c) Absorption is the active adding of material to the digestive tube, from the bloodstream

(d) Digestion is the same as secretion from the accessory digestive organs

(e) Absorption is identical to both ingestion and egestion, whereas digestion is not identical to these processes

100. The genitourinary system

(a) The reproductive organs and pathways in both males and females

(b) Involves just the organs of urine formation and excretion

(c) A collection of specialized cells that directly participate in body defense

(d) Is located just inferior and dorsal to most of the neuromuscular system

(e) Concept that the reproductive and urinary pathways share many traits

Answers:

1. B

2. A

3. D

4. E

5. A

6. C

7. A

8. B

9. D

10. E

11. C

12. D

13. C

14. B

15. A

16. E

17. B

18. E

19. C

20. C

21. B

22. D

23. A

24. C

25. A

26. C

27. B

28. A

29. C

30. D

31. C

32. C

33. E

34. C

35. D

36. B

37. E

38. B

39. E

40. C

41. B

42. D

43. C

44. B

45. C

46. B

47. B

48. B

49. C

50. D

51. E

52. A

53. C

54. B

55. C

56. E

57. E

58. B

59. C

60. A

61. B

62. A

63. C

64. C

65. E

66. D

67. C

68. D

69. B

70. B

71. C

72. B

73. E

74. E

75. A

76. A

77. A

78. E

79. A

80. D

81. D

82. D

83. C

84. A

85. B

86. D

87. B

88. C

89. D

90. E

91. A

92. B

93. B

94. D

95. C

96. D

97. B

98. A

99. B

100. E

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