Building Words: Spelling Review Study Guide (page 3)
Practice exercises for this study guide can be found at:
If a big part of learning how to spell is learning what words mean, then a big part of learning what words mean is learning how words are put together. The words that make up the English language did not just spring, fully formed, from the mouths of people living in caves thousands of years ago. Although it's impossible to trace the development of language precisely, we do know that English has developed gradually over time, more by accident and chance than by design.
An extraordinary percentage of English words have roots that come from Latin or Greek words. Just as the roots of a tree give the tree a foundation, word roots establish the basic meaning of the word. Attached to the root are affixes, which can come before the root (prefixes) or after the root (suffixes).
FUEL FOR THOUGHT
MAKE MINE STRAWBERRY!When building an ice cream sundae, you must first decide what flavor of ice cream to use. Then you add the toppings. The ice cream determines the base flavor of the sundae, while the toppings add to or change that flavor. Some toppings, like sprinkles, just add a little extra flavor, while other toppings, like chocolate sauce, change the flavor of the entire sundae.
With words, the root is like the ice cream—it tells you what the word will be about. For example, the Latin root vis means "to see." The word vis does not exist as an English word all on its own. You can't say, "I vis a butterfly." Just as ice cream doesn't become a sundae until you add the toppings, most roots do not become words until you add the affixes.
The root vis can combine with many affixes to create many different words. If you add the suffix -ion, meaning "act or process," you get the word vision, which means "the process of seeing." You could add the suffix -ible, meaning "able to," to get the word visible, which means "able to be seen." Suffixes like -ion and -ible are similar to sprinkles on your word sundae; they don't change the meaning of the root, but they add something extra to the word's meaning.
Affixes like the prefix in- and the suffix -less are more like chocolate sauce. The prefix in- means "not." If you add the prefix in- to visible, you get the word invisible, meaning "not able to be seen." Although the root idea remains the same—to be seen—adding the prefix in- changes the entire meaning of the word.
Before we take a closer look at the different parts of words, let's try a few practice questions to see how much you already know.
BREAK IT DOWN
Before you can start to break words into roots, prefixes, and suffixes, it helps to refresh your understanding of syllables. Syllables are letters or combinations of letters that produce a single sound. Most syllables are somewhere between one and five letters long, and every syllable must have only one vowel sound or diphthong. (Vowel sounds are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4.) The word prevented, for example, has three syllables, each with only one vowel sound—pre-vent-ed. When you pronounce the word aloud, you can feel the three different breaking points in the word. In this case, each part of speech in the word gets its own syllable; pre- is the suffix, vent is the root, and -ed is the suffix.
Most roots, prefixes, and suffixes are either one or two syllables long, so breaking the word down into syllables is a good way to figure out which word part is which. It is important to remember, though, that words can have more than one prefix and suffix. For example, the word unremittingly is an adverb that means "persistently." The root of unremittingly is mit. The word has two prefixes (un- and re-) and two suffixes (-ing and -ly). Once you learn to recognize common prefixes, suffixes, and roots, you can easily take words apart to uncover their meanings.
Here are some rules to help remember where to divide syllables:
Divide between two consonants. Examples:
- com / ment
- fur / nish
- man / ner
- out / fit
- con / trol
Divide after the vowel if it has a long sound. Examples:
- de / light
- A / pril
- be / gin
- ta / ble
Divide after the consonant if the vowel has a short sound. Examples:
- gov / ern
- gath / er
- lav / ish
- Aug / ust
The roots of a plant anchor the plant in the soil so that it can stand. A word root serves a similar function. Roots are the basic building blocks of all words. Every word either is a root or has a root. Just as a house cannot be built without a foundation, a word must have a root to give it meaning. Roots combine with a wide range of prefixes and suffixes to make words.
Roots can be a helpful key to understanding how to spell a word. For example, the Latin root cred means "believe." This is the root of the word incredible. Other words that share the same root are credible, incredulous, and credit. If you know that the root of these words is spelled cred, you are already well on your way to spelling all of these words.
The trickiest thing to remember about roots is that the same root can be spelled in different ways. For instance, the words proceed, recede, and recess all have the same root, which is commonly listed as ced/ceed/cess. This root means "to go, to come, or to yield."
FUEL FOR THOUGHT
THE TERMS roots and base words are sometimes used interchangeably, but they have different meanings. Roots are the basic building blocks of meaning, and they are mainly derived from Greek or Latin words. Usually, roots cannot be used as words all by themselves. Base words, on the other hand, are the most basic forms of words. Base words have roots, but roots do not have base words.
For example, the word fiction is a base word. You can add the suffix -al to make the adjective, fictional, or you can add the prefix non- to make the noun nonfiction. The most basic form of the word from which fictional and nonfiction are made is fiction. The root of fiction is fic, meaning "to do or to make." Fic is not an English word all by itself. Fiction is a base word, because it stands on its own as a word, and fic is a root, which cannot stand on its own as a word.
Prefixes and Suffixes
Prefixes and suffixes are groups of letters that connect to roots to create words. Prefixes come before the root, while suffixes come after the root. Like roots, prefixes and suffixes have a fixed meaning that remains the same, no matter which word they are attached to.
Prefixes enhance or change the meaning of a word. Although you cannot tell the meaning of a word from the prefix alone, the prefix can help you get an idea of what the word is about. The prefix omni-, for example, means "all." This prefix can be found in the word omnipotent, which means "all powerful." Now read the following sentence:
Most humans are omnivorous eaters.
If you recognize that the prefix omni- means "all," you can take a guess that this word means "all eating" … and you would be correct! The root vor means "to eat"; an omnivorous eater eats both plants and animals. Someone who is an omnivorous eater is described as an omnivore.
In addition to enhancing or changing the meanings of words, suffixes determine which part of speech the word will be. In the preceding sentence, for example, the word omnivore is a noun, while the word omnivorous is an adjective. The suffix -ous is an adjective ending, meaning "full of, having the qualities of, or relating to." You could add a second suffix to this word, -ly, to make the adverb omnivorously, as in: He eats omnivorously. We have just changed a noun to an adjective to an adverb, simply by changing the ending. Magic!
MANY PREFIXES HAVE similar meanings, such as dis-, il-, and un-. Unfortunately, you cannot just substitute one word for the other willy-nilly. This is the case with the words disable and unable. Disable means "to cripple." Someone might disable the electricity before working with electrical wires, for example. Unable, on the other hand, means "not able." You could be unable to answer a phone because you were busy. You would never say that you were disable to answer the phone, even though both dis- and un- mean "not."
The same applies to suffixes. The adjective endings -able and -ible mean "capable of worthy of; tending or liable to." These endings can be a source of confusion in spelling, because they sound alike and there is only one letter difference between them. You cannot use them in place of one another, however; the word meaning "can be eaten" is spelled edible, not edable.
But don't lose hope just yet! There is a rule that addresses the -ible and -able dilemma. The rule is, if the word is not a complete word on its own, use -ible, as in edible, visible, and incredible. If the word can be used on its own in a sentence, add -able, as in fashionable, comfortable, and bearable. (If the word is a complete word that ends in an -e, drop the final e before adding the -able, as in excusable and valuable.)
There are a few exceptions to this rule, such as reversible and digestible, but the -able/-ible rule can help you remember how to spell many of the most common words.
HYPHENATED AND COMPOUND WORDS
Hyphenated words are words that are connected with a hyphen. Compound words are words that are joined together without a hyphen. Hyphenated and compound words can be difficult to remember, because sometimes even dictionaries disagree on how these words are spelled. Double-digit numbers like twenty-two are always written with a hyphen, and words like basketball and waterfall are always written as compound words. Disagreements arise most often with more modern phrases. A pad that goes under a computer mouse is spelled mouse pad by some people and mousepad by other people. If the word remains in use for a long time, one spelling or the other will probably win out.
There are, however, some rules that can help you remember when to hyphenate. You should use a hyphen
- when two or more words are combined as a single adjective, such as one-way street, dog-eared page, or two-year-old boy.
- with words that describe job titles or family relationships, such as editor-in-chief, mother-in-law, or half-brother.
- after the prefixes ex-, self-, and all- (ex-husband, self-employed, allencompassing),as well as before the suffix -elect (president-elect, governor-elect).
- when joining a prefix to a capitalized word, such as mid-Atlantic or un-American.
- with fractions and double-digit numbers that are represented by more than one word, such as one-half, two-thirds, or eighty-three. (Note: this hyphenation rule applies only to the numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine. For example, three hundred and forty-three thousand.)
- to combine numbers with nouns, as in fifty-dollar ticket, four-year term.
- to avoid confusion, as when combining two words would create an awkwardly spelled word (shell-like instead of shelllike).
- to form ethnic designations, such as Chinese-American or Indo-European.
THE PHRASES year-old, years old, and o'clock are common sources of hyphenated confusion. Remember that words used as a single adjective are hyphenated. So in the phrase ten-year-old boy, the words ten-year-old form a single adjective. Notice that there isn't a hyphen between old and boy. This is because boy is the noun that the phrase ten-year-old is modifying. On the other hand, if you said that the boy was ten years old, you would not use any hyphens. In this case, the words ten and years are not being used as one adjective; the word ten is an adjective that modifies years, and the word years is a modifier that describes old.
So far, so good. Here's where it gets tricky. If you want to say your friend is a ten-year-old, the words are hyphenated. "But why?" you ask in shock. "This seems to go against all known laws of nature!" The reason is this: In the phrase ten-year-old, the noun is implied. It is a unique case in which, for some mysterious reason, over the years, the adjective phrase ten-year-old has become accepted as a noun. So to repeat: When the phrase [number]-year-old comes before the noun or is used as a noun, it is hyphenated. If the phrase comes after the noun, it is not hyphenated and is often plural: Ben is five years old.
The final rule involving time is an easy one. Numbers used with the phrase o'clock do not have a hyphen, such as three o'clock or twelve o'clock. The phrase o'clock is a shortened form of "of the clock." It's a strange phrase to have such a prominent place in our daily lives, but at least you know how to spell it now!
CROSSING THE FINISH LINE
In this lesson, we learned that a large percentage of English words come from Latin or Greek. Most words consist of roots, which establish the basic meanings of the words, and prefixes and/or suffixes. When trying to understand words, it can be helpful to divide words into syllables.
Prefixes and suffixes are groups of letters that connect to roots to create words. Prefixes come before the root, and suffixes come after the root. Both suffixes and prefixes enhance or change the meaning of a word. Suffixes also determine which part of speech the word will be. Finally, we learned the rules for hyphenated and compound words.
Practice exercises for this study guide can be found at:
- Kindergarten Sight Words List
- First Grade Sight Words List
- 10 Fun Activities for Children with Autism
- Signs Your Child Might Have Asperger's Syndrome
- Theories of Learning
- A Teacher's Guide to Differentiating Instruction
- Child Development Theories
- Social Cognitive Theory
- Curriculum Definition
- Why is Play Important? Social and Emotional Development, Physical Development, Creative Development