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Cognition Rapid Review for AP Psychology (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

Four major models account for organization of information in LTM:

  • Hierarchies—systems in which concepts are arranged from more general to more specific classes.
  • Concepts—mental representations of related things.
  • Prototypes—the most typical examples of a concept.

  • Semantic networks—more irregular and distorted systems than strict hierarchies, with multiple links from one concept to others.
  • Schemas—frameworks of basic ideas and preconceptions about people, objects, and events based on past experience.
  • Script—a schema for an event.

Flashbulb memory—vivid memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

Connectionism—theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons, many of which can work together to process a single memory.

Artificial intelligence (AI)—a field of study in which computer programs are designed to simulate human cognitive abilities such as reasoning, learning, and understanding language.

Neural network or Parallel processing model—clusters of neurons that are interconnected (and computer models based on neuronlike systems) process information simultaneously, automatically, and without our awareness.

Long-term potentiation or LTP—an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation and possibly the neural basis for learning and memory, involving an increase in the efficiency with which signals are sent across the synapses within neural networks.

The thalamus is involved in encoding sensory memory into STM.

The hippocampus is involved in putting information from STM into LTM.

The amygdala is involved in the storage of emotional memories.

The cerebellum processes implicit memories and seems to store procedural memory and classically conditioned memories.

Retrieval—the process of getting information out of memory storage.

  • Retrieval cue—a stimulus that provides a trigger to get an item out of memory.
  • Priming—activating specific associations in memory either consciously or unconsciously.
  • Recognition—identification of something as familiar such as multiple choice and matching questions on a test.
  • Recall—retrieval of information from LTM in the absence of any other information or cues such as for an essay question or fill-in on a test.
  • Reconstruction—retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping, or changing details to complete a picture from incomplete stored information.
  • Confabulation—process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you're trying to remember.
  • Misinformation effect—incorporation of misleading information into memories of a given event.
  • Serial position effect—better recall for information that comes at the beginning (primacy effect) and at the end of a list of words (recency effect).
  • Encoding specificity principle—retrieval depends upon the match between the way information is encoded and the way it is retrieved.
  • Context-dependent memory—physical setting in which a person learns information is encoded along with the information and becomes part of the memory trace.
  • Mood congruence (mood-dependent memory)—tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
  • State-dependent memory effect—tendency to recall information better when in the same internal state as when the information was encoded.
  • Distributed practice—spreading out the memorization of information or the learning of skills over several sessions typically produces better retrieval than massed practice.
  • Massed practice—cramming the memorization of information or the learning of skills into one session.
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