Cognition Rapid Review for AP Psychology (page 2)
More in-depth study guides for this subject can be found at:
Memory—human capacity to register, retain, and remember information. Three models of memory:
- Information Processing Model of memory—encoding, storage, and retrieval.
- Encoding—the process of putting information into the memory system.
- Storage—the retention of encoded information over time.
- Retrieval—the process of getting information out of memory storage.
- Levels of Processing Theory or Semantic Network Theory—the ability to form memories depends upon the depth of the processing.
- Shallow processing—structural encoding emphasizes structure of incoming sensory information.
- Atkinson-Shiffrin model: Three memory systems—sensory, short-term, and long-term.
We have difficulty attending to two complex tasks—divided attention.
Deep processing—semantic encoding involves forming an association or attaching meaning to a sensory impression and results in longer-lasting memories.
Self-reference effect or self-referent encoding—processing information deemed important or relevant more deeply, making it easier to recall.
Sensory memory—memory system that holds external events from the senses for up to a few seconds.
- Visual encoding—the encoding of picture images.
- Iconic memory—a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli.
- Acoustic encoding—the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
- Echoic memory—a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
- Selective attention—the focusing of awareness on stimuli in sensory memory that facilitates its encoding into STM.
- Automatic processing—unconscious encoding of information about space, time, and frequency that occurs without interfering with our thinking about other things.
- Parallel processing—a natural mode of information processing that involves several information streams simultaneously.
- Effortful processing—encoding that requires our attention and conscious effort.
- Feature extraction (pattern recognition)—finding a match for new raw information in sensory storage by actively searching through long-term memory.
Short-term memory—working memory, 20 seconds before forgotten; capacity of seven plus or minus two items.
- Rehearsal—conscious repetition of information to either maintain information in STM or to encode it for storage.
- Maintenance rehearsal—repetition that keeps information in STM about 20 seconds.
- Elaborative rehearsal—repetition that creates associations between the new memory and existing memories stored in LTM.
- Chunking—grouping information into meaningful units increasing the capacity of STM.
- Mnemonic devices—memory tricks or strategies to make information easier to remember.
- Method of loci—uses visualization with familiar objects on a path to recall information in a list.
- Peg word system—uses association of terms to be remembered with a memorized scheme ("One is a bun, two is...").
Baddeley's working memory model—a more complex model than just passive STM; includes a phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and the central executive.
Long-term memory—relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, LTM is subdivided into explicit (declarative) memory and implicit memory.
- Explicit memory (declarative)—memory of facts and experiences that one consciously knows and can verbalize. Explicit memory is subdivided into semantic memory and episodic memory.
- Implicit memory (nondeclarative)—retention without conscious recollection of learning the skills and dispositions.
Semantic memory—memory of general knowledge or objective facts.
Episodic memory—memory of personally experienced events.
Procedural memory—memories of perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills.
Four major models account for organization of information in LTM:
- Hierarchies—systems in which concepts are arranged from more general to more specific classes.
- Concepts—mental representations of related things.
- Semantic networks—more irregular and distorted systems than strict hierarchies, with multiple links from one concept to others.
- Schemas—frameworks of basic ideas and preconceptions about people, objects, and events based on past experience.
Prototypes—the most typical examples of a concept.
Script—a schema for an event.
Flashbulb memory—vivid memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Connectionism—theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons, many of which can work together to process a single memory.
Artificial intelligence (AI)—a field of study in which computer programs are designed to simulate human cognitive abilities such as reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
Neural network or Parallel processing model—clusters of neurons that are interconnected (and computer models based on neuronlike systems) process information simultaneously, automatically, and without our awareness.
Long-term potentiation or LTP—an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation and possibly the neural basis for learning and memory, involving an increase in the efficiency with which signals are sent across the synapses within neural networks.
The thalamus is involved in encoding sensory memory into STM.
The hippocampus is involved in putting information from STM into LTM.
The amygdala is involved in the storage of emotional memories.
The cerebellum processes implicit memories and seems to store procedural memory and classically conditioned memories.
Retrieval—the process of getting information out of memory storage.
- Retrieval cue—a stimulus that provides a trigger to get an item out of memory.
- Priming—activating specific associations in memory either consciously or unconsciously.
- Recognition—identification of something as familiar such as multiple choice and matching questions on a test.
- Recall—retrieval of information from LTM in the absence of any other information or cues such as for an essay question or fill-in on a test.
- Reconstruction—retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping, or changing details to complete a picture from incomplete stored information.
- Confabulation—process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you're trying to remember.
- Misinformation effect—incorporation of misleading information into memories of a given event.
- Serial position effect—better recall for information that comes at the beginning (primacy effect) and at the end of a list of words (recency effect).
- Encoding specificity principle—retrieval depends upon the match between the way information is encoded and the way it is retrieved.
- Context-dependent memory—physical setting in which a person learns information is encoded along with the information and becomes part of the memory trace.
- Mood congruence (mood-dependent memory)—tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
- State-dependent memory effect—tendency to recall information better when in the same internal state as when the information was encoded.
- Distributed practice—spreading out the memorization of information or the learning of skills over several sessions typically produces better retrieval than massed practice.
- Massed practice—cramming the memorization of information or the learning of skills into one session.
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