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Cognition Rapid Review for AP Psychology (page 3)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

Forgetting—the inability to retrieve previously stored information. Forgetting results from failure to encode, decay of stored memories, or inability to access stored information.

  • Interference—learning some items prevents retrieving others, especially when the items are similar.
  • Proactive interference—the process by which old memories prevent the retrieval of newer memories.
  • Retroactive inference—the process by which new memories prevent the retrieval of older memories.
  • Repression—the tendency to forget unpleasant or traumatic memories hidden in the unconscious mind according to Freud.
  • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon—the often temporary inability to access information accompanied by a feeling that the information is in LTM.
  • Anterograde amnesia—inability to put new information into explicit memory resulting from damage to hippocampus; no new semantic memories are formed.
  • Retrograde amnesia—memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident.

Overlearning—continuing to practice after memorizing information makes it more resistant to forgetting.

Problem solving and creativity:

Cognition—all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.

Metacognition—thinking about how you think.

Problem-solving steps typically involve identifying a problem, generating problem-solving strategies, trying a strategy, and evaluating the results.

Trial and error—trying possible solutions and discarding those that fail to solve the problem.

Algorithm—problem-solving strategy that involves a step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution to certain types of problems.

Heuristic—a problem-solving strategy used as a mental shortcut to quickly simplify and solve a problem, but that does not guarantee a correct solution.

Insight learning—the sudden appearance (often creative) or awareness of a solution to a problem.

Deductive reasoning—reasoning from the general to the specific.

Inductive reasoning—reasoning from the specific to the general.

Hindrances to problem solving may include:

Mental sets—barriers to problem solving that occur when we apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying new or different strategies.

Functional fixedness—when we are not able to recognize novel uses for an object because we are so familiar with its common use.

Cognitive illusion—systematic way of thinking that is responsible for an error in judgment.

Availability heuristic—a tendency to estimate the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind.

Representativeness heuristic—tendency to judge the likelihood of things according to how they relate to a prototype.

Framing—the way an issue is stated. How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

Anchoring effect—tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point, pulling our response toward that point.

Confirmation bias—tendency to notice or seek information that already supports our preconceptions and ignore information that refutes our ideas.

Belief perseverance—the tendency to hold onto a belief after the basis for the belief is discredited.

Belief bias—the tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, making illogical conclusions seem valid or logical conclusions seem invalid.

Hindsight bias—the tendency to falsely report, after the event, that we correctly predicted the outcome of the event.

Overconfidence bias—the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

Overcoming obstacles to problem solving can include:

Creativity—the ability to think about a problem or idea in new and unusual ways to come up with unconventional solutions.

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