Cognition Rapid Review for AP Psychology (page 4)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

Incubation—putting aside a problem temporarily; allows the problem solver to look at the problem from a different perspective.

Brainstorming—generating lots of possible solutions to a problem without making prior evaluative judgments.

Divergent thinking—thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas.

Convergent thinking—conventional thinking directed toward a single correct solution.

Language—communication system based on words and grammar; spoken, written, or gestured words and the way they are combined to communicate meaning from person to person and to transmit civilization's accumulated knowledge.

  • Phonemes—smallest units of sound in spoken language.
  • Morphemes—the smallest unit of language that has meaning.
  • Grammar—a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
  • Syntax—rules that are used to order words into grammatically sensible sentences.
  • Semantics—a set of rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
  • Babbling—an infant's spontaneous production of speech sounds; begins around 4 months old.
  • Holophrase—one-word utterances that convey meaning; characteristic of a 1-year-old.
  • Telegraphic speech—meaningful two-word sentences, usually a noun and a verb, and usually in the correct order uttered by 2-year-olds.
  • Overgeneralization or overregularization—application of grammatical rules without making appropriate exceptions ("I goed to the store").
  • Behavioral perspective—language is developed by imitating sounds we hear to create words.
  • Nativist perspective—idea that the human brain has an innate capacity for acquiring language (language acquisition device) possibly during a critical period of time after birth, and that children are born with a universal sense of grammar (Noam Chomsky).
  • Social interactivist perspective—babies are biologically equipped for learning language, which may be activated or constrained by experience.
  • Linguistic relativity hypothesis—our language guides and determines our thinking (Whorf ). It is more accurate to say that language influences thought.
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