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# Correlation, Causation, Order, and Chaos Practice Test

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Review the following concepts if necessary:

## Correlation, Chaos, and Order Practice Test

A good score is 8 correct.

1. Refer to the correlation plot of Fig. 7-13. Suppose the dashed line represents the least-squares line for all the solid black points. If a new value is added in the location shown by the gray point P, but no other new values are added, what will happen to the least-squares line?
1. It will move to the left of the position shown.
2. It will move to the right of the position shown.
3. Its position will not change from that shown.
2. Refer to the correlation plot of Fig. 7-13. Suppose the dashed line represents the least-squares line for all the solid black points. If a new value is added in the location shown by the gray point Q, but no other new values are added, what will happen to the least-squares line?
1. It will move to the left of the position shown.
2. It will move to the right of the position shown.
3. Its position will not change from that shown.
3. Fig. 7-13. Illustration for Practice Test Questions 1 through 3.

4. Refer to the correlation plot of Fig. 7-13. Suppose the dashed line represents the least-squares line for all the solid black points. If a new value is added in the location shown by the gray point R, but no other new values are added, what will happen to the least-squares line?
1. It will move to the left of the position shown.
2. It will move to the right of the position shown.
3. Its position will not change from that shown.
5. Theoretically, the earth's population function can level off at a stable value
1. if we wait long enough
2. if the Malthusian r factor exceeds a certain critical value
3. if the Malthusian r factor is kept low enough
4. under no circumstances
6. If the correlation between two phenomena X and Y is given by r = 0, then an increase in the frequency, intensity, or amount of X
1. is unrelated to any change in the frequency, intensity, or amount of Y
2. is usually attended by an increase in the frequency, intensity, or amount of Y
3. is usually attended by a decrease in the frequency, intensity, or amount of Y
4. causes a change in the frequency, intensity, or amount of Y
7. According to the Malthusian model, the earth's population, in the absence of limiting factors, would
1. increase geometrically
2. increase up to a certain point and then level off
3. increase linearly
4. decrease to zero
8. In the plot of Fig. 7-14, the correlation between phenomenon X and phenomenon Y appears to be
1. positive
2. negative
3. chaotic
4. geometric
9. Fig. 7-14. Illustration for Practice Test Questions 7 and 8.

10. With respect to the plot shown by Fig. 7-14, which of the following scenarios (a), (b), or (c) is plausible?
1. Changes in the frequency, intensity, or amount of X cause changes in the frequency, intensity, or amount of Y.
2. Changes in the frequency, intensity, or amount of Y cause changes in the frequency, intensity, or amount of X.
3. Changes in the frequency, intensity, or amount of some third factor, Z, cause changes in the frequencies, intensities, and amounts of both X and Y.
4. Any of the above scenarios (a), (b), or (c) is plausible.
11. Correlation is a measure of the extent to which the points in a scatter plot
1. tend to lie near the origin
2. tend to be arranged in a circle
3. tend to be arranged along a straight line
4. tend to lie near the center of the graph
12. Why are the digits in the decimal expansion of the square root of 10 not truly random?
1. Because they can be generated by an algorithm.
2. Because the decimal expansion of the square root of 10 cannot be defined.
3. Because the decimal expansion of the square root of 10 is a rational number.
4. The premise is wrong! They are truly random.

1. a
2. b
3. c
4. c
5. a
6. a
7. b
8. d
9. c
10. a

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