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Arts and Humanities Critical Reading Practice Exercises Set 1 (page 2)

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Updated on Sep 27, 2011

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  1. c.   The description of the winding paths, shifting landscape and sections that spill into one another support the assertion that the park lacks a center.
  2. e.   Line 8 states that Olmsted wanted to create a democratic playground, so he designed the park to have many centers that would allow interaction among the various members of society (lines 10–11).
  3. b.   Line 6 states that the park's design was innovative, suggesting it was very different from other park designs.
  4. a.   Olmsted's goal of creating a democratic park with many centers that would allow interaction among everyone without giving preference to one group or class (line 11) shows his philosophy of inclusion.
  5. b.   Lines 3–4 state that the goods pertaining to the soul are called goods in the highest and fullest sense.
  6. d.   In line 5 Aristotle notes that the definition of good corresponds with the current opinion about the nature of the soul.
  7. a.   In the second paragraph, Aristotle states that we have all but defined happiness as a kind of good life and well-being. Thus, the definitions of happiness and goodness are intertwined; living a good life will bring happiness.
  8. c.   In the third paragraph, Aristotle lists several different ways that people define happiness to show that they all fit into the broad definition of a kind of good life and well-being.
  9. e.   The opening sentence tells readers that making a list of pros and cons is a technique of utilitarian reasoning. Thus, readers who have used this technique will realize they are already familiar with the basic principles of utilitarianism.
  10. b.   The second sentence explains the main argument of utilitarianism—that we should use consequences to determine our course of action. Thus posits is used here in the sense of asserts.
  11. c.   Lines 2–4 explain that according to utilitarianism, only the consequences of our actions are morally relevant. Lines 5–8 explain that an action is morally good if it creates good (happiness).
  12. d.   Lines 15–17 state the utilitarian principle of choosing actions that create the greatest amount of good (happiness) for the greatest number of people.
  13. a.   Lines 17–22 explain two aspects of utilitarianism that complicate the decision-making process: that it is not always clear what the consequences of an action will be (whether they will bring shortor long-term happiness and to what degree), and that sometimes we must sacrifice the happiness of others.
  14. b.   In the first sentence, the author states that the subject-matter of knowledge is intimately united (line 2), while in the second sentence he adds the Sciences […] have multiple bearings on one another (lines 3–4). In line 6 he states that the sciences complete, correct, balance each other.
  15. d.   In the first sentence, the author states that all branches of knowledge are connected together (line 1). Then, in the second sentence, he writes Hence it is that the Sciences, into which our knowledge may be said to be cast (lines 3–4). Thus, Newman is using the term the Sciences to refer to all branches of knowledge.
  16. c.   The word excise here is used in an unusual way to mean impose or put upon. The main context clue is the word influence, which suggests a giving to rather than a taking away.
  17. a.   Throughout the first paragraph, the author emphasizes the interdependence of the branches of knowledge and warns against focusing on one branch at the neglect of others. He states that to give undue prominence to one [area of study] is to be unjust to another; to neglect or supersede these is to divert those from their proper object (lines 10–12). More importantly, he states that this action would serve to unsettle the boundary lines between science and science, to destroy the harmony which binds them together (lines 12–14). Thus the knowledge received would be skewed; it would tel[l] a different tale when it is not viewed as a portion of a whole (lines 16–17).
  18. b.   The first sentence of the second paragraph shows that its purpose is to further develop the idea in the first by way of example. Newman writes, Let me make use of an illustration (line 19)—an illustration that further demonstrates how one's understanding of an idea changes in relation to the other ideas around it.
  19. a.   Here apprehends is used to mean understands. In this paragraph, the author describes what it is the university student would learn from his or her professors.
  20. c.   Throughout the passage, Newman argues that the branches of knowledge are interrelated and should be studied in combination and in relation to each other. He argues against focusing on one science or discipline, and he states that the university student apprehends the great outlines of knowledge (line 50), suggesting that he understands the broad issues in many subject areas.
  21. b.   At the beginning of the third paragraph, Newman states that it is a great point then to enlarge the range of studies which a University professes (lines 35–36) and that students would be best served by living among those and under those who represent the whole circle (lines 38–39) of knowledge. He argues that students will learn from the atmosphere created by their professors who adjust together the claims and relations of their respective subjects and who learn to respect, to consult, to aid each other (lines 43–45).

For more practice on arts and humanities critical reading questions, review:

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