Types of Critical Thinking Exams Practice Exercises (page 2)
Review the lesson for Types of Critical Thinking Study Guide.
Types of Critical Thinking Exams Practice Exercises
- In lines 8–9, when the author speaks of "the first real training or education of my mind," he refers to
- the voyage of the Beagle.
- the development of his career.
- the branches of natural history.
- his powers of observation.
- the shape of his nose.
- In lines 13–14, the author says he considers geology far more important due to the fact that
- its structure is obvious.
- it helped him learn to reason.
- he made sense out of chaos.
- play is as important as work.
- he learned how to study.
- In line 18, the word stratification most nearly means
- In lines 21–22, the phrase the structure of the whole becomes more or less intelligible refers to
- the break of day.
- the ability to predict findings.
- a comprehensive knowledge.
- the assurance of correctness.
- the fitting together of disparate facts.
- In line 37, the admission that many of the author's manuscripts proved almost useless depends on the notion that
- it is necessary to draw and know anatomy when collecting animals.
- additional description would have been required for clarity.
- a rough dissection is better than no dissection.
- publication requires more finesse than he possessed.
- describing and dissection are a waste of time.
- In line 41, the word monograph most nearly means
- a line drawing.
- a comprehensive treatment.
- a one-page summary.
- a thorough dissection.
- a written treatment.
- In lines 42–45, the author sees the primary value of his journal as being
- a contribution to English society.
- good preparation for his future work.
- practice in painstaking description.
- killing two birds with one stone.
- to serve as letters home.
- In line 59–60, the word preponderated most nearly means
- d. It was the training in several branches of natural history that led to the improvement of the author's powers of observation (lines 10–11).
- b. The author says the investigation of geology brought reasoning into play (lines 14–15), meaning he had to develop his reasoning.
- c. Stratification means layers. In lines 17–19 stratification is opposed to chaos, as the way in which rocks are ordered.
- e. As the author works through the logic of geology, the many disparate facts begin to make sense (lines 21–22).
- a. The author says that the facts that he was not able to draw and did not have sufficient anatomical knowledge (lines 34–37) made his manuscripts worthless.
- e. Monograph is a word for a narrowly focused written treatment of a subject. Compare monograph (line 41) with manuscript (line 36) for your context clue. In the context, a monograph could not be less thorough than a manuscript.
- c. The author says he took much pains in describing carefully and vividly, and that this was good practice (lines 42–45).
- a. The word preponderated means took over or predominated. In line 60 the word over placed after preponderated is your clue, along with the context of the sentence.
Read the following debate, which took place before scientists officially decided Pluto was not a planet, then answer the questions.
Based on perturbations in Neptune's orbit, the search for a ninth planet was conducted and Pluto was discovered in 1930. Pluto orbits the Sun just as the other eight planets do, it has a moon, Charon, and a stable orbit. Based on its distance from the Sun, Pluto should be grouped with the planets known as gas giants. In addition, Pluto, like the planet Mercury, has little or no atmosphere. Pluto is definitely not a comet because it does not have a tail like a comet when it is near the Sun. Pluto is also not an asteroid, although its density is closer to an asteroid than to any of the other planets. Pluto is a planet because it has been classified as one for more than sixty years since its discovery.
Pluto should no longer be classified as a planet based on new evidence that has come to light in the last few years. When Pluto was first discovered, nothing was known about its orbit or its composition. Pluto has an orbit that is not in the same plane as the other planets (i.e., it is tilted) and its orbit is more eccentric, or elongated than any other planet's orbit. Pluto orbits the Sun in the outer solar system, and so should be similar in size and composition to the gas giants, but it is not. Pluto lacks the rings that all other gas giants possess. Also, Pluto's moon is larger than any other moon relative to its parent planet. In recent years, new objects have been found which belong to the Kuiper Belt, a region of small solid icy bodies that orbit the Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune and Pluto. A large object called Quaoar has recently been discovered which has a density nearly identical to Pluto, Charon, and Triton. Based on these facts, I conclude that Pluto is a Kuiper Belt object.
- Scientist 1 states that "Based on its distance from the Sun, Pluto should be grouped with the planets knows as gas giants." Which of the following statements made by Scientist 2 opposes Scientist 1's belief that Pluto is a gas planet?
- Pluto's moon is larger than any other moon relative to its parent planet.
- A large object called Quaoar has recently been discovered which has a density nearly identical to Pluto, Charon, and Triton.
- Pluto has an orbit that is not in the same plane as the other planets (i.e., it is tilted) and its orbit is more eccentric, or elongated than any other planet's orbit.
- Pluto lacks rings that all other gas giants possess.
- What do both scientists agree upon?
- Pluto is like Mercury.
- Pluto is a Kuiper Belt Object.
- Pluto orbits the sun.
- Charon is a planet.
- Which of the following are reasons why Scientist 2 believes Pluto should NOT be classified as a planet?
- Pluto has no atmosphere.
- Pluto is similar in composition to Quaoar.
- Pluto has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets.
- Pluto's orbit is not in the same plane as the orbits of the other planets.
- II, III only
- I, III, IV
- III, IV only
- II, III, IV
- Based on composition and density, Pluto is a
- Kuiper Belt Object.
- Earth-like planet.
- gas giant planet.
- Based on the information presented by Scientist 2, what is a possible origin for Neptune's moon, Triton?
- Triton is a natural moon of Neptune.
- Triton is a captured Kuiper Belt Object.
- Triton is a captured asteroid.
- Triton is a captured comet.