Types of Critical Thinking Exams Practice Exercises (page 3)
Review the lesson for Types of Critical Thinking Study Guide.
Types of Critical Thinking Exams Practice Exercises
- In lines 8–9, when the author speaks of "the first real training or education of my mind," he refers to
- the voyage of the Beagle.
- the development of his career.
- the branches of natural history.
- his powers of observation.
- the shape of his nose.
- In lines 13–14, the author says he considers geology far more important due to the fact that
- its structure is obvious.
- it helped him learn to reason.
- he made sense out of chaos.
- play is as important as work.
- he learned how to study.
- In line 18, the word stratification most nearly means
- In lines 21–22, the phrase the structure of the whole becomes more or less intelligible refers to
- the break of day.
- the ability to predict findings.
- a comprehensive knowledge.
- the assurance of correctness.
- the fitting together of disparate facts.
- In line 37, the admission that many of the author's manuscripts proved almost useless depends on the notion that
- it is necessary to draw and know anatomy when collecting animals.
- additional description would have been required for clarity.
- a rough dissection is better than no dissection.
- publication requires more finesse than he possessed.
- describing and dissection are a waste of time.
- In line 41, the word monograph most nearly means
- a line drawing.
- a comprehensive treatment.
- a one-page summary.
- a thorough dissection.
- a written treatment.
- In lines 42–45, the author sees the primary value of his journal as being
- a contribution to English society.
- good preparation for his future work.
- practice in painstaking description.
- killing two birds with one stone.
- to serve as letters home.
- In line 59–60, the word preponderated most nearly means
- d. It was the training in several branches of natural history that led to the improvement of the author's powers of observation (lines 10–11).
- b. The author says the investigation of geology brought reasoning into play (lines 14–15), meaning he had to develop his reasoning.
- c. Stratification means layers. In lines 17–19 stratification is opposed to chaos, as the way in which rocks are ordered.
- e. As the author works through the logic of geology, the many disparate facts begin to make sense (lines 21–22).
- a. The author says that the facts that he was not able to draw and did not have sufficient anatomical knowledge (lines 34–37) made his manuscripts worthless.
- e. Monograph is a word for a narrowly focused written treatment of a subject. Compare monograph (line 41) with manuscript (line 36) for your context clue. In the context, a monograph could not be less thorough than a manuscript.
- c. The author says he took much pains in describing carefully and vividly, and that this was good practice (lines 42–45).
- a. The word preponderated means took over or predominated. In line 60 the word over placed after preponderated is your clue, along with the context of the sentence.
Read the following debate, which took place before scientists officially decided Pluto was not a planet, then answer the questions.
Based on perturbations in Neptune's orbit, the search for a ninth planet was conducted and Pluto was discovered in 1930. Pluto orbits the Sun just as the other eight planets do, it has a moon, Charon, and a stable orbit. Based on its distance from the Sun, Pluto should be grouped with the planets known as gas giants. In addition, Pluto, like the planet Mercury, has little or no atmosphere. Pluto is definitely not a comet because it does not have a tail like a comet when it is near the Sun. Pluto is also not an asteroid, although its density is closer to an asteroid than to any of the other planets. Pluto is a planet because it has been classified as one for more than sixty years since its discovery.
Pluto should no longer be classified as a planet based on new evidence that has come to light in the last few years. When Pluto was first discovered, nothing was known about its orbit or its composition. Pluto has an orbit that is not in the same plane as the other planets (i.e., it is tilted) and its orbit is more eccentric, or elongated than any other planet's orbit. Pluto orbits the Sun in the outer solar system, and so should be similar in size and composition to the gas giants, but it is not. Pluto lacks the rings that all other gas giants possess. Also, Pluto's moon is larger than any other moon relative to its parent planet. In recent years, new objects have been found which belong to the Kuiper Belt, a region of small solid icy bodies that orbit the Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune and Pluto. A large object called Quaoar has recently been discovered which has a density nearly identical to Pluto, Charon, and Triton. Based on these facts, I conclude that Pluto is a Kuiper Belt object.
- Scientist 1 states that "Based on its distance from the Sun, Pluto should be grouped with the planets knows as gas giants." Which of the following statements made by Scientist 2 opposes Scientist 1's belief that Pluto is a gas planet?
- Pluto's moon is larger than any other moon relative to its parent planet.
- A large object called Quaoar has recently been discovered which has a density nearly identical to Pluto, Charon, and Triton.
- Pluto has an orbit that is not in the same plane as the other planets (i.e., it is tilted) and its orbit is more eccentric, or elongated than any other planet's orbit.
- Pluto lacks rings that all other gas giants possess.
- What do both scientists agree upon?
- Pluto is like Mercury.
- Pluto is a Kuiper Belt Object.
- Pluto orbits the sun.
- Charon is a planet.
- Which of the following are reasons why Scientist 2 believes Pluto should NOT be classified as a planet?
- Pluto has no atmosphere.
- Pluto is similar in composition to Quaoar.
- Pluto has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets.
- Pluto's orbit is not in the same plane as the orbits of the other planets.
- II, III only
- I, III, IV
- III, IV only
- II, III, IV
- Based on composition and density, Pluto is a
- Kuiper Belt Object.
- Earth-like planet.
- gas giant planet.
- Based on the information presented by Scientist 2, what is a possible origin for Neptune's moon, Triton?
- Triton is a natural moon of Neptune.
- Triton is a captured Kuiper Belt Object.
- Triton is a captured asteroid.
- Triton is a captured comet.
- d. Only the statement "Pluto lacks the rings that all other gas giants possess," opposes the statement made by Scientist 1.
- c. If you read both passages carefully, only one fact appears in both. Scientist 1 states, "Pluto orbits the Sun just as the other eight planets do," and Scientist 2 states, "Pluto orbits the Sun in the outer solar system."
- d. According to Scientist 2, the factors that separate Pluto are its different density, composition, and orbital characteristics, which are more like those of the Kuiper Belt Objects than the planets.
- a. Pluto, Charon, and Neptune's moon, Triton, all have densities and compositions similar to the newly discovered object Quaoar. This infers that they are all bodies originally from the Kuiper Belt.
- b. Triton's similar density and composition to Quaoar are evidence that indicate that it is an object that was captured by Neptune's gravity at some point in the early formation of the solar system.
- Some workers in the factory are women. Most of the women in the factory have children. Marsha works in the factory. Conclusion: Marsha has children.
- necessarily true
- probably, but not necessarily true
- can't be determined
- probably, but not necessarily false
- necessarily false
- Suppose you know that:
all the books about cooking are Cindy's.
all the blue books are Cindy's.
Then would this be true?
At least some of the blue books are about cooking.
- The correct answer is choice c. You can't decide without more information, because you don't know how what "some" and "many" are.
- The correct answer is choice c. Cindy might have a collection of books about cooking and a separate set of books that are blue.
Here is an example taken from a situational reasoning part of a Corrections Officer Test.
Following are a set of rules and procedures for corrections officers. Based on these, answer the questions that follow them. You may refer back to the rules and procedures as often as needed.
- Contraband is any item that an inmate is not permitted to have in his or her possession. Officers who discover contraband will confiscate the item(s), investigate the situation, and write a report. Appropriate disciplinary action should be taken based on the results of the investigation. Pat-down searches of visitors to prison facilities should be performed whenever an officer receives a tip that a visitor may be attempting to smuggle contraband into the facility.
- Corrections officers are often responsible for seeing to it that inmates follow personal grooming rules. An officer can direct an inmate to get a haircut. To do so:
- The officer should approach the inmate and tell the inmate a haircut is needed.
- The officer should write a pass for the inmate to report to the desk supervisor.
- The inmate reports to the desk supervisor, who records the inmate's presence in a log and then directs the inmate to wait in line for the haircut.
- After the haircut, the inmate will report back to the officer who ordered the procedure.
Inmates housed in isolation are to be given the opportunity to shower every other day. The officer in charge of this procedure should document the time, date, and name of the inmate who showered.
- Jewelry is considered contraband in prison environments. Officer Nolan conducts a search of Inmate Harland's cell and finds a gold ring under his pillow. What should he do?
- He should confiscate the ring and tell Inmate Harland that he can have it back when he is released from prison.
- He should leave it where it is because Inmate Harland might accuse him of planting the ring in his cell.
- He should confiscate the ring and tell Inmate Harland that he won't report it as a violation, but now Inmate Harland "owes him one."
- He should confiscate the ring, find out how Inmate Harland got it, and then write a report detailing the incident.
- Inmate Greggs's hair is hanging below the bottom of his collar. Officer Trunkle orders Inmate Greggs to get a haircut. What is the next step for Officer Trunkle to take?
- Check Inmate Greggs's cell mate to see if he needs a haircut.
- Call his supervisor to see if he can send Inmate Greggs to the barber.
- Check to see if the barber has an appointment open for Inmate Greggs.
- Write a pass to the desk supervisor for Inmate Greggs.
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