Cytogenetics Practice Problems
Review the following concepts if needed:
- Chromosome Structure for Genetics
- Variation in Chromosome Number for Genetics
- Variation in Chromosome Size for Genetics
- Variation in the Arrangement of Chromosome Segments for Genetics
- Variation in the Number of Chromosome Segments for Genetics
- Variation in Chromosome Morphology for Genetics
- Human Cytogenetics for Genetics
Vocabulary For each of the following definitions, give the appropriate term and spell it correctly. Terms are single words unless indicated otherwise.
- A cell or organism containing three sets of chromosomes.
- A cell or organism produced by doubling the chromosome number of an interspecific hybrid.
- Any variation in chromosome number that does not involve whole sets of chromosomes.
- A cell or organism having a genomic formula 2n – 1.
- An adjective applicable to a giant chromosome consisting of hundreds of chromatid strands.
- Exchange of pieces between two nonhomologous chromosomes. (Two words.)
- Altered phenotypic expression of a gene as a consequence of movement from its normal location. (Two words.)
- Achromosomal aberration that, with the help of crossing over within the aberration, can lead to "bridge and fragment" formation. (Two words.)
- Phenotypic expression of a recessive gene as a consequence of loss of a chromosomal segment bearing the corresponding dominant allele.
- The arrangement of the somatic chromosome complement (karyotype) of a cell in groups of homologous pairs.
Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the one best answer.
- A treatment often used to induce polyploidy experimentally in plants is (a) X-rays (b) gibberellic acid (c) colchicine (d) acridine dyes (e) azothioprene
- A mechanism that can cause a gene to move from one linkage group to another is (a) translocation (b) inversion (c) crossing over (d) duplication (e) dosage compensation
- If during synapsis a certain kind of abnormal chromosome is always forced to bulge away from its normal homologue, the abnormality is classified as (a) an inversion (b) a duplication (c) an isochromosome (d) a deficiency (e) none of the above
- If four chromosomes synapse into a cross-shaped configuration during meiotic prophase, the organism is heterozygous for a (a) pericentric inversion (b) deletion (c) translocation (d) paracentric inversion (e) none of the above
- A segment of chromosome may be protected from recombination by (a) an inversion (b) a translocation (c) balanced lethals (d) more than one of the above (e) all of the above
- A person with Klinefelter syndrome is considered to be (a) monosomic (b) triploid (c) trisomic (d) deletion heterozygote (e) none of the above
- Given a normal chromosome with segments labeled C123456 (C = centromere), a homologue containing an inversion including regions 3–5, and a single two-strand crossover between regions 4 and 5; then the acentric fragment present during first meiotic anaphase is (a) 63456 (b) 12344321 (c) 65521 (d) 654321 (e) none of the above
- Pseudodominance may be observed in heterozygotes for (a) a deletion (b) a duplication (c) a paracentric inversion (d) a reciprocal translocation (e) more than one of the above
- The most easily recognized characteristic of an inversion heterozygote in plants is (a) gigantism (b) semisterility (c) a cross-shaped chromosome configuration during meiosis (d) pseudodominance (e) none of the above
- If the garden pea has 14 chromosomes in its diploid complement, how many double trisomics could theoretically exist? (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 16 (d) 21 (e) none of the above. (Hint: See formula (2.1).]
- allotetraploid (amphidiploid)
- reciprocal translocation
- position effect
- paracentric inversion
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