Development of Agriculture and Technology Review Questions for AP World History
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- Early agriculture in the Americas
- developed as a result of cultural diffusion from the Eastern Hemisphere.
- featured the domestication of larger animals than in the Eastern Hemisphere.
- began later than in the Eastern Hemisphere.
- did not produce the wide variety of crops that the Eastern Hemisphere did.
- saw the rise of urbanization earlier than did the Eastern Hemisphere.
- The Agricultural Revolution
- began with an extensive pattern of cultural diffusion.
- occurred about the same time throughout the world.
- was confined to nonwestern civilization.
- was an abrupt process beginning in 8000 B.C.E.
- saw the use of agricultural methods that encouraged migration.
- During the Agricultural Revolution, women
- were confined to childbearing duties.
- participated in hunting activities with men.
- experienced a decrease in status.
- were not represented in neolithic art.
- observed and studied the agricultural environment.
- The Neolithic Age
- saw the beginnings of urbanization.
- saw the process of agriculture carried out without the use of metal tools.
- produced societies without class distinctions.
- saw a decline in global populations.
- witnessed the end of nomadic societies.
- Early urban dwellers
- were dominated by peoples in agricultural settlements.
- left the pursuit of religious practices to agricultural peoples.
- saw the need for a government.
- were exempt from taxation.
- were offered few opportunities to carry out specialized tasks .
Answers and Explanations
- C—Agriculture in the Americas began around 5000 B.C.E., whereas that in the Eastern Hemisphere had begun at least 3000 years earlier. Agriculture in the Americas developed independently (A). Animals in the Americas were smaller than those in the Eastern Hemisphere (B). Although food crops in the Americas differed from those in the Eastern Hemisphere, a wide variety, including maize, squash, beans, and cacao, was produced (D). Urban areas such as those of Sumer predated urban areas in the Americas (E).
- E—Slash-and-burn cultivation resulted in the migration of early agricultural peoples as the soil lost its fertility. The Agricultural Revolution developed independently throughout the world (A) and at different times (B). The beginning of agriculture was a gradual process (D) that occurred in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres, although at different times (C).
- E—Women studied the growth of plants and became the first farmers. As such, they were not confined merely to childrearing duties (A). Men handled the more strenuous duties of hunting (B). Women's role as farmers and childbearers gave them an importance in neolithic society (C), a role that was represented in the fertility statues of the Neolithic Age (D).
- A—The first cities arose in Sumer. Some neolithic societies used tools of copper, bronze, and later, iron (B). Societies were often stratified, with elite classes, peasants, and slaves (C). Because of the success of early agriculture, population rose rapidly worldwide during the Neolithic Age (D). Although many nomadic peoples changed to a settled lifestyle in the Neolithic Age, nomadism continues to the present (E).
- C—Government arose from a need to cooperate in major projects such as irrigation and flood control. Early cities tended to embrace and extend their governments to nearby agricultural settlements (A). Religious leaders played a role in early cities (B), residents were required to pay taxes or tribute (D), and specialization of labor was commonplace (E).
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