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Digestive System Help (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Aug 18, 2011

Accessory Organs

Liver. Lobes of the liver are:

  • Lobes of the liver:
  • Right and left lobe, separated by the falciform ligament.
  • Caudate lobe is near the inferior vena cava.
  • Quadrate lobe is between the left lobe and the gall bladder.

The liver receives oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery, a branch of the celiac artery. It also receives food-laden blood from the hepatic portal vein, which carries venous blood from the GI tract. In the liver sinusoids, blood from both sources mix. Oxygen, nutrients, and certain toxic substances are extracted by hepatic cells.

Functions of the liver are:

  • Synthesis, storage, and release of vitamins and glycogen
  • Synthesis of blood proteins
  • Phagocytosis of worn red and white blood cells and bacteria
  • Removal of toxic compounds
  • Production of bile, which emulsifies fats in the duodenum

Gall bladder. Pouchlike organ attached to the inferior surface of the liver. Stores and concentrates bile. Bile, produced in the liver, drains through the hepatic ducts and bile duct to the duodenum. When the small intestine is empty, bile is forced up the cystic duct to the gallbladder for storage.

Pancreas. Lies horizontally along the posterior abdominal wall, adjacent to the greater curvature of the stomach. Exocrine secretions act on all three food groups.

Practice problems for these concepts can be found at:

Digestive System Practice Problems

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