Empires and Other Political Systems Review for AP World History (page 3)
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Spain and Portugal in the Americas
In the mid- and late fifteenth century, events that took place on the Iberian peninsula culminated in an encounter between Western Europe and the Americas. This encounter profoundly altered the government and society of the peoples of the Americas. In the mid-fifteenth century, the Portuguese increased exploration of the western and eastern coasts of Africa. The knowledge and wealth obtained from these ventures created further interest in expeditions of exploration and colonization. In Spain, the marriage of Fernando of Aragón and Isabel of Castile in the mid-fifteenth century united the kingdoms of Aragón and Castile. This union gave its support to three significant events in Spanish history in 1492:
- The Reconquista (Reconquest) of former Spanish territory from the Muslims with the fall of Granada.
- The expulsion of Jews who refused to convert to Christianity. Spain would suffer serious economic repercussions with the removal of the Jews, who were some of its most welleducated and skilled people.
- The first voyage of Columbus. The unification of central Spain and the end of warfare with the Muslims freed the Spanish monarchs to turn their attention to voyages of exploration.
The Spanish-sponsored voyage of Ferdinand Magellan, beginning in 1519, not only circumnavigated the globe but also gave Spain a basis for its colonization of the Philippines in the late sixteenth century.
Control in the Caribbean
Spain's interests in the Americas began in the Caribbean. During his second voyage in 1493, Columbus established a colony on Santo Domingo. In the sixteenth century, the Spaniards took control of Puerto Rico and Cuba and settled Panama and the northern coast of South America. Spanish control of these regions introduced European diseases to the Native Americans, an exchange that significantly decreased the native population. The Spanish crown granted Caribbean natives to the conquerors for use as forced labor.
Conquest in the Americas
In the fifteenth century, the once mighty empires of the Aztecs and Incas fell to the Spaniards. Tales of riches in the interior of Mexico led the Spaniard Hernán Cortés to attempt the conquest of the Aztec Empire. The Spaniards were aided in their venture by several factors:
- Indian allies from among native peoples who had been conquered by the Aztecs.
- The legend of Quetzalcóatl—Moctezuma II, the Aztec leader at the time of the conquest, believed that Cortés may have been the god who was expected to return to Mesoamerica.
- Superior Spanish weaponry.
- The assistance of Malinche (called Doña Marina by the Spanish), an Aztec woman who served as interpreter between the Spanish and the Aztecs.
- Smallpox—Introduced into the Aztec Empire by one infected member of the Cortés expedition, it caused the death of thousands.
On the completion of the Aztec conquest in 1521, the capital city of Tenochtitlán was burned to the ground and a new capital, Mexico City, was constructed on its site. The Spaniards then continued their conquests into north central Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras.
The Spaniards also turned their attention to the region of the Andes Mountains of western South America. By 1535, Francisco Pizarro had conquered the rich Inca Empire, already weakened by years of civil war. The Spaniards then sent expeditions from northern Mexico into what is now the southwestern portion of the United States. From 1540 to 1542, Francisco de Coronado reached as far north as Kansas in an unsuccessful search for seven mythical cities of gold. Further campaigns of exploration led to the conquest of Chile and the establishment of the city of Buenos Aires in present-day Argentina. By the late sixteenth century, the Spaniards had set up about 200 urban centers in the Americas.
Spanish galleons carried loads of gold and silver across the Atlantic Ocean to Spain, where the influx of such large quantities of the precious metals caused inflation of the Spanish economy. Eventually, inflation spread throughout Europe. Until the eighteenth century, the Manila galleons sailed the Pacific, transporting silver from the mines of Spain's American colonies to China to trade for luxury goods.
The pursuit of gold and adventure was not the sole motive for the founding of a Spanish colonial empire. Another goal was the desire to spread the Roman Catholic faith to native peoples. Roman Catholic religious orders such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, and Franciscans established churches and missions where they educated the Indians and taught them the Christian faith. The Roman Catholic faith became an integral element in the society of the Spanish colonies.
The right of the Spaniards to govern their American colonies was established by papal decree through the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). This agreement divided the newly discovered territories between the Catholic countries of Spain and Portugal by drawing an imaginary line around the globe. Spain received the right to settle the lands to the west of the line drawn through the Western Hemisphere, and Portugal those to the east. Spanish government in the Americas was a massive bureaucracy controlled from Spain by the Council of Indies. The council was further divided into two viceroyalties, one centered in Mexico City and the other in Lima, in present-day Peru.
The economic structure of Spain's American colonies was the encomienda system. Encomiendas were grants from the Spanish crown that allowed the holders to exploit the Indians living on the land they controlled. In Peru, the exploitation of Indians took the form of the mita, or forced labor, especially in the silver mines. After Father Bartolomé de las Casas spoke out against the mistreatment of the Indians, the encomienda system was restructured as the repartamiento. The new system allowed a small salary to be paid to Indian laborers.
Spanish American Society
Spanish American society took on a hierarchical structure. Four basic classes emerged:
- Peninsulares—colonists born in Europe. The penisulares initially held the most powerful positions in colonial society.
- Criollos (creoles)—colonists born in the Americas of European parents. Generally well-educated and financially secure, the creoles would eventually become colonial leaders and organizers of colonial independence movements.
- Mestizos—people of mixed European and Indian ancestry.
- Mulatos (mulattos)—people of mixed European and African ancestry. The mestizos and mulatos occupied the lowest political and social positions in Spanish American society.
Families in the Spanish and Portuguese American colonies were patriarchal. Women were expected to devote themselves to traditional household and childbearing duties. Lower-class women worked in the fields and sometimes managed small businesses. Women could control their dowries, however, and also could inherit property.
The Portuguese colony of Brazil became the first colony based on a plantation economy. Founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500, Brazil was settled in 1532 by Portuguese nobles. Sugar plantations using Indian labor arose; when the Indians died of European diseases, slaves were brought from Africa. Labor in Brazilian gold mines also was supplied by Indians and African slaves. Society in Brazil followed a hierarchy similar to that of the Spanish colonies, and Roman Catholicism was introduced by Jesuit missionaries. In addition to Brazil, the Portuguese Empire included colonies and trade outposts in Africa and Asia.
The Ottoman Empire
The Mongol invasion of eastern Anatolia in 1243 led to the collapse of the Seljuk Turks and the subsequent rise of the Ottoman Turks. The Ottomans migrated into Anatolia to fill the vacuum left by the Seljuks. Named after their leader Osman Bey, the Ottomans established an empire centered around Anatolia. By the late fourteenth century, much of the Balkans were added to the Ottoman Empire.
In 1453, the Ottomans completed their conquest of the city of Constantinople. The Christian church of Hagia Sophia was converted into an elaborate mosque, palaces were constructed in the city, and the defense system of Constantinople was repaired. After the conquest of Constantinople, the Ottomans united most of the Arab world by adding Syria, Egypt, and the rest of North Africa to their empire. In the fifteenth century, they became a major naval power until they suffered a decisive defeat by a combined Venetian and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. As late as 1688, the Ottomans threatened the Austrian capital of the Hapsburg dynasty. This siege was not as devastating, however, as a previous siege against Vienna in 1529.
The Ottoman Empire was focused on warfare. Beginning in the middle of the fifteenth century, its armies were largely composed of soldiers called Janissaries. Janissaries were Christian boys who were captured and enslaved. Sometimes the boys were turned over to the Ottomans by their own parents in the hope that the education given to them would lead to a prominent position in the Ottoman Empire. The selection process for the Janissaries was called devshirme; it placed the boys with Turkish families to learn their language and the teachings of Islam.
Women in Ottoman society maintained a subordinate role to their fathers and husbands. Although some women in lower classes became involved in trade and small businesses, Ottoman women as a whole were given very little opportunity to acquire an education or participate in politics. Instead, Ottoman women, especially those in elite classes, were restricted by the wearing of the veil and, in some cases, seclusion within the harem.
By the late seventeenth century, the vast Ottoman Empire was so difficult to administer that it fell into a gradual decline. As opportunities to add new territories ran out because of the strengthening military power of other Muslims and of Christians, the Ottomans lost their ability to maintain their large army and bureaucracy. Taxes charged to the lower classes were raised as Ottoman rulers became more and more corrupt. The inflationary trend that affected Europe as a result of the influx of gold and silver in Spain also produced inflation within the Ottoman territories. The Ottomans fell behind in warfare technology because of their reliance on huge weaponry intended for siege tactics. Ignoring the value of Western technological innovations, the Ottomans also disregarded the growing power of Western Europe, a policy that hastened its decline.
In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Mongols and of Turks, migrated from the steppes of central Asia to the Indian subcontinent. The founder of the Mughal dynasty had lost his kingdom in Central Asia; by 1528, he had used his superior gunpowder technology to conquer a large portion of northern India and had founded a dynasty that would last to the mid-nineteenth century.
The greatest leader of the Mughal dynasty was Akbar (ruled 1560–1605). Throughout his reign, he brought more of northern and central India under his control, established a bureaucracy, and patronized the arts. He encouraged cooperation between Hindus and Muslims in India.
Akbar also broke with Hindu and Muslim tradition regarding the treatment of women in society. He encouraged widows to remarry and outlawed sati, the practice among Hindu elite classes of burning women on their husband's funeral pyre. Akbar also encouraged merchants to arrange market days for women only so that those following the practice of purdah, or confinement in their homes, would have an opportunity to participate in public life. By the declining years of the Mughal Empire, however, the improvements in the position of women had largely been discontinued.
Mughal art and architecture often blended Muslim styles with those of other societies. Mughal artists were known for their miniatures, some of which included Christian religious subjects. Mughal architecture blended the white marble typical of Indian architecture with the arches and domes of the Islamic world. Probably the most well-known architectural structure of the Mughal era was the Taj Mahal, constructed by Shah Jahan as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
The cost of warfare and defensive efforts to protect the northern borders of the Mughal Empire contributed to its decline. Later Mughal rulers failed to bridge the differences between Muslims and Hindus. Centralized government broke down as India returned to numerous local political organizations. The decline of centralized authority opened doors for the entrance of foreign powers, especially the British.
Monarchies in France and England
In the sixteenth century, European monarchies expanded their power dramatically. Characteristics of these monarchies were:
- The maintenance of strong armies.
- The establishment of elaborate bureaucracies.
- High taxes to support the frequent wars on the European continent.
In France, a system of absolute monarchy arose as monarchs stopped convening the Estates-General, the medieval parliament. In addition to the characteristics of monarchs listed above, absolute monarchs believed in a concept called the divine right of kings. Divine right held that monarchs were granted their right to rule by God. Territorial expansion was a goal of the strong military that the absolute monarchies assembled. The most noteworthy of European absolute monarchs was Louis XIV of France (1643–1715), who not only adhered to the doctrine of divine right but also lived extravagantly in his palace at Versailles outside Paris. Keeping with absolutist tradition, Louis XIV also spent huge sums on the military in order to carry out numerous wars to expand French territory.
The prevailing economic theory of the day, called mercantilism, encouraged nations to export more than they imported and promoted the founding of colonies. Colonies provided raw materials and ready markets for the manufactured goods produced by the mother country.
The English developed a different model of monarchy in the seventeenth century: parliamentary monarchy. Although ruled by a centralized government, England limited the power of its monarchs with a parliament in which they shared power with representatives chosen by voters from the elite classes. The English Civil War (1642–1649) and the Glorious Revolution of 1689 placed the power of parliament over that of the king. The English parliament met regularly without the consent of the monarch and also retained the authority to tax and appropriate tax revenues.
The Development of European Nation-States
Government in Europe was organized around the nation-state. Well suited to a continent composed of various cultural groups, a nation-state is defined as a political unit that:
- Governs people who share a common culture, including a common language.
- Has definite geographic boundaries.
- Enjoys sovereignty.
European nation-states were governed by either absolute or parliamentary monarchs. The number of nation-states on the small European continent, however, created rivalries and divisions that often led to war.
The Russian Empire
Russia followed the path of absolute monarchy after the final expulsion of the Mongols in 1480. The Mongol occupation of Russia produced a nation with a weakened emphasis on education, and also depressed trade and manufacturing. Under the tsars Ivan III (the Great) and Ivan IV (the Terrible), Russia expanded from the eastern border of Poland into western Siberia across the Ural Mountains. Russian pioneers called Cossacks were sent to the newly conquered territories, taking over land previously held by Asian nomads. In the process of expanding its borders, Russia added a substantial Muslim minority to its population.
The death of Ivan IV without an heir paved the way for the emergence of the Romanov dynasty. In 1613, the Russian nobles, or boyars, selected Mikhail Romanov as its new tsar, beginning a dynasty that ruled until 1917. The new tsar continued Russian expansion, adding part of the Ukraine around Kiev and also southern territory that extended to the frontier of the Ottoman Empire. Later Romanovs created state control over the Russian Orthodox Church.
Peter the Great
In 1700, the Russian Empire remained agricultural to a larger extent than East Asian empires or Western European nations. Peter I (the Great), who ruled from 1689 to 1725, launched a new era in Russian history by opening up the country to Western influence. On a trip to Western Europe in a vain attempt to enlist support against the Turks, Peter acquired an appreciation for Western science and technology. When he returned to Russia, he took Western craftsmen with him. In order to bolster trade, Peter fought a war with Sweden in which he not only greatly reduced the military power of Sweden but also gained for Russia a warm water port on the Baltic Sea. Peter also moved his capital from Moscow to a new city on the Baltic that he named St. Petersburg. He then created a navy for Russia. Continuing his policy of westernization, Peter required boyars to shave their beards and wear Western clothing. He also brought the ballet from France to Russia and allowed women of elite classes to attend public events for the first time.
In spite of his interest in Western technology, Peter the Great did not accept Western democratic trends. Unimpressed with parliamentary government, he continued to favor absolute monarchy. He set up controls over his subjects by creating a secret police and encouraged the continuation of serfdom. Serfdom, which differed from slavery in binding laborers to the land only, kept the Russian economy focused on agriculture, in spite of the westernization policies of Peter the Great.
Catherine II (the Great), who ruled from 1729 to 1796, continued the expansionist and westernization policies of Peter. Laws restricting serfs were harsher than before. Catherine upheld the concept of absolute monarchy but also brought ideas of the Enlightenment (see Chapter 19) to Russia. She reduced severe punishments for crimes in order to bring the Russian justice system more in line with that of Western Europe and encouraged Western art and architecture. Catherine added new territory in the Crimea, Alaska, and northern California to the Russian Empire.
The Ming dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, a warlord who had assisted in the expulsion of the Mongols from China. The Ming dynasty, which reacted against Mongol rule by returning to Chinese tradition, lasted from 1368 to 1644. Under Ming rule:
- The revered position of the scholar-gentry was restored.
- The Confucian-based civil service exam was reinstated and expanded. Women, however, continued to be banned from taking the exam.
- Public officials who were corrupt or incompetent were beaten publicly.
- Thought control, or censorship of documents, was sanctioned by the government.
- Neo-Confucianism, which supported strict obedience to the state, increased its influence.
- Women continued to occupy a subordinate position in the strongly patriarchal society.
Between 1405 and 1423, the Ming dynasty, under the leadership of Zheng He, engaged in several major expeditions of exploration and trade. Designed to impress the remainder of the Eastern Hemisphere with the glories of Ming China, the Zheng He expeditions sailed through the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf. By the 1430s, however, the scholar-gentry had persuaded Ming leaders that the expeditions were too costly in light of the need to spend the empire's funds on restraining continued Mongol threats to China's northern border.
In the late sixteenth century, Jesuits such as the scholar Matteo Ricci were allowed to enter China. More interested in the Jesuits' transmission of scientific and technological knowledge than in Christian theology, the Ming Chinese allowed some Jesuits to remain in China throughout the Ming era.
During the last 200 years of the Ming dynasty, China was ruled by incompetent rulers. The maintenance of dams, dikes, and irrigation systems was neglected, and nomadic peoples continued to exert pressure along the Great Wall. In 1644, the Jurchen, or Manchus, a nomadic people on China's northern borders, conquered the Ming dynasty. The new Qing dynasty ruled until the early twentieth century as the last Chinese dynasty.
While the Ming dynasty isolated itself from most foreigners, Japan went through periods of both isolation and acceptance of Western influence. In 1603, the Tokugawa family gained prominence when one of its members acquired the title of shogun. Ruling Japan from the city of Edo (present-day Tokyo), the Tokugawa Shogunate brought a degree of centralized authority to Japan. Large estates of many of the daimyo were broken up and taken over by the Tokugawa family.
Europeans entered Japan in 1543 when Portuguese sailors shipwrecked and were washed up on the shore of the southern island of Kyushu. Additional visits from European traders and missionaries brought Western technology, including clocks and firearms, into Japan. The use of firearms changed Japanese warfare from feudal to modern and assisted the Tokugawa in maintaining their authority. When Christian missionaries arrived to bring Roman Catholicism to the Japanese, the Tokugawa at first protected them from Buddhist resistance. In the late 1580s, however, the Tokugawa stifled Buddhist resistance to their authority. Christianity was perceived as a threat to Tokugawa authority, and Christian missionaries were ordered to leave Japan. Japanese Christians were persecuted and executed. By 1630, foreign trade was allowed only in a few cities and Japanese ships were banned from trading or sailing across long distances. By the 1640s, only the Dutch and Chinese were allowed to trade through the port of Nagasaki. Contacts with the Dutch allowed the Japanese to keep informed about Western developments (Dutch learning) and adopt those they considered appropriate to Japanese goals.
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