European History Test
European History Test
1. Which nation changed sides during the Second World War?
D. Soviet Union
2. Which was the first nation to establish settled colonies in North America?
3. Iron Curtain nations refused to accept Marshall Plan aid because
A. they blamed Germany for destroying the European economy.
B. there was too much distrust between the former Allied and Axis nations.
C. they knew they would never be able to repay the United States.
D. Stalin refused to allow any ties between his satellites and his only strong national rival.
4. Constantinople was named “the New (Second) Rome”; ________________ later became known as “the Third Rome.”
5. At the end of the Thirty Years’ War, ________________ emerged as the dominant European power.
C. the Holy Roman Empire
6. The Holy Roman Empire was offi cially and permanently dissolved during
A. the Reformation.
B. the Thirty Years’ War.
C. the Napoleonic Wars.
D. the Great War.
7. The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 declared that each German Prince
A. could choose the religion of his state.
B. could cast one vote for Holy Roman emperor.
C. must vote for a Protestant for the post of Holy Roman emperor.
D. must vote for a Catholic for the post of Holy Roman emperor.
8. In Italy, the Fascists and the major landowners united forces against ______________
A. the conservatives.
B. the Socialists.
C. the monarchy.
D. the Church.
9. In nineteenth-century Europe, both conservatives and liberals believed that
A. there should be separation among the branches of the central government.
B. a written constitution was necessary for political stability.
C. a nation should be ruled by a benevolent, but absolute, hereditary monarch.
D. the working class should not have any voice in the government.
10. The term Renaissance refers to a reawakening of interest in art and ideas from which period?
A. the Middle Ages
B. the Classical age
C. the Romantic era
D. the prehistoric era
11. What was the purpose of the Great Purges of the 1930s?
A. to eliminate political opposition in the Soviet Union
B. to massacre specific ethnic groups within Europe
C. to provide necessary labor for major construction projects
D. to draft men into the armed forces in the Axis nations
12. The development of _______________ gave the working class some leverage over business and factory owners for the fi rst time in history.
B. steam power
C. the railway
D. trade unions
13. Control of __________________ constituted a major bone of contention between France and Germany for nearly four hundred years.
A. the Rhine River
B. the Danube River
C. Alsace and Lorraine
D. Belgium and Flanders
14. Britain and France went to war in North America over conflicting claims to
A. the Ohio River valley area.
B. the city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
C. territory west of the Mississippi River.
D. the colonies along the Atlantic coast.
15. Which major figure of the Enlightenment first suggested a government of multiple branches with checks and balances?
A. René Descartes
B. the Baron de Montesquieu
C. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
16. The Austrian Empire created in 1815 included all these states except __________________
17. During the _______________ , Vasili II established a hereditary monarchy in Russia.
18. A major goal of the Congress of Vienna was to ensure that ______________ would no longer be a major European power.
19. Michelangelo’s frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel are an important reflection of their historical period because
A. they are almost entirely the work of a single painter.
B. they cover an enormous surface.
C. they treat Christian and pagan elements equally.
D. they were commissioned by the pope.
20. The Weimar Republic provided ineffective leadership primarily because
A. the leaders in the Reichstag could not agree on policy.
B. most German voters did not want a democratic government.
C. France had sent an occupying force into the Ruhr.
D. the leaders suppressed free speech and a free press.
21. One reason the Industrial Revolution was slower to come about on the continent was the lack of political influence among the _____________
A. aristocracy and nobility.
B. mercantile middle class.
C. working class and farmers.
D. students and intellectuals.
22. The Japanese victory over Russia in 1905 stopped Russia’s expansion into _________________
23. What was the most important purpose of the Berlin Wall?
A. to prevent any possibility of a Berlin airlift during the blockade
B. to prevent Iron Curtain nations from accepting Marshall Plan aid
C. to prevent West Germans and other Western Europeans from defecting to East Germany
D. to prevent citizens of East Germany and other Iron Curtain nations from defecting to the West
24. Which accurately describes the main difference between Lutheranism and Calvinism?
A. Calvinists believe in predestination; Lutherans believe in salvation by faith.
B. Calvinists believe in salvation by faith; Lutherans believe in predestination.
C. Calvinists believe in salvation by good works; Lutherans believe in salvation by faith.
D. Calvinists believe in salvation by faith; Lutherans believe in salvation by good works.
25. The British enclosure movement of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries caused
A. a drop in production in British textile mills.
B. a mass migration from the villages to the large cities.
C. a rise in subsistence farming.
D. hostile relations between Britain and France.
26. The Romantic movement in the arts stressed the importance of
A. the great value of the worker to society.
B. the individual personality of the artist.
C. the glorification of religion.
D. the random chances that make up human life.
27. Machiavelli’s The Prince was revolutionary because it asserted
A. that a ruler should do whatever was necessary to maintain power, including acting unethically or dishonestly.
B. that women were just as competent and qualifi ed to rule kingdoms as men.
C. that rule over a nation-state should be decided by merit, not by birth.
D. that all human beings had certain natural rights.
28. Britain defeated France in a power struggle over India during _____________
A. the Seven Years’ War.
B. the Napoleonic Wars.
C. the Sepoy Mutiny.
D. World War I.
29. One important reason Elizabeth I supported the Anglican Church was that
A. the Catholic Church considered her parents’ marriage invalid.
B. she welcomed the chance to share her royal authority with the pope.
C. the majority of ordinary English people preferred the Catholic faith.
D. she was a devout Protestant who hoped to spread the Anglican faith throughout Europe.
30. What was the key factor in Britain’s being the first European nation to industrialize?
A. the supremacy of its navy
B. its leading role in the Scientific Revolution
C. its political, social, and financial stability
D. the extent of its colonial empire
31. During the Reformation, ______________ became the state religion of Scotland.
32. _____________ brought an abrupt end to the European economic recovery of the late 1920s.
A. Hitler’s rise to power
B. Stalin’s rise to power
C. The Great Depression
D. The Spanish Civil War
33. Which European nation emerged from World War II as a great world power?
D. Soviet Union
34. The term Indochina refers to a group of Southeast Asian states collectively ruled by _____________ at the end of the nineteenth century.
D. the Netherlands
35. The invention and development of the ______________ allowed Galileo to make crucial observations about the planets and other heavenly bodies.
A. pendulum clock
B. printing press
36. Minister of state _______________ deliberately used the press to provoke France to attack Prussia in 1870.
A. Napoleon III
B. Otto von Bismarck
C. William Gladstone
D. Klaus von Metternich
37. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s belief in _______________ aroused the contempt of most other philosophes .
A. the nobility of primitive man
B. the importance of the hereditary class system
C. the influence of education
D. the importance of religious beliefs
38. Which nation did not participate in the peace conference held at Versailles in 1919?
39. ________________ was the main cause of both world wars.
B. Extreme nationalism
C. Defense against aggression
D. Religious conflict
40. During the Reformation, which nation adopted a Protestant religion by legislative act rather than popular rebellion?
41. Britain imposed its authority on Egypt in the late nineteenth century in order to maintain
A. a trade monopoly on Egyptian cotton.
B. a friendly alliance with a large Arab nation.
C. control over the Suez Canal.
D. control of Egypt’s foreign relations within Africa.
42. The loyalty of ______________ may have been Hitler’s most important asset in his rise to the office of chancellor of Germany.
A. the wealthy
B. the middle class
C. the intellectuals and artists
D. the World War I veterans
43. Which nation was the aggressor in the Crimean War of the 1850s?
44. Count Camillo di Cavour is historically significant for his central role in
A. the unification of Italy.
B. the Russian defeat of Napoleon.
C. the restoration of Charles II of England to the throne.
D. the Congress of Vienna.
45. Why did the Catholic nation of France not support the Catholic side in the Thirty Years’ War?
A. because the king of France was married to an Austrian princess
B. because the pope was a traditional enemy of the French kings
C. because a Catholic defeat in the war would strengthen France’s position
D. because France’s ministers were sympathetic to the Protestant side
46. Britain drove _______________ out of power in South Africa and the Orange Free State.
A. the Dutch
B. the French
C. the Portuguese
D. the Germans
47. The USSR and the United States nearly reached the point of nuclear war during _______________
A. the Cuban Missile Crisis.
B. the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks.
C. the partition of Germany into four zones of occupation.
D. the signing of the Warsaw Pact.
48. As a result of the 1438 Council of Florence,
A. Martin Luther published his Ninety-Five Theses in Wittenberg.
B. a major cultural and intellectual exchange took place among scholars.
C. Pope Leo X commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling.
D. the Italian city-states became a unified nation under one monarch.
49. Which nation began World War I by declaring war on Serbia?
50. All of these were important causes of Napoleon’s downfall, except
A. France had become the common enemy of all other European nations.
B. the mainly non-French army felt no loyalty to either Napoleon or France.
C. the anger of the legislature over being ruled by a non-French emperor.
D. the development of nationalism in other European nations.
51. Which best describes the overarching goal that united all the eighteenth-century philosophes?
D. political unification
52. In The Communist Manifesto , Marx and Engels stated that ________________ was the most valuable member of society.
A. the constitutional monarch
B. the soldier
C. the worker
D. the artist or intellectual
53. The Catholic Church helped to bring about its own loss of power and influence by
A. failing to reunite the Orthodox and Roman Catholic denominations.
B. establishing seminaries for the education and training of priests throughout Europe.
C. sponsoring Johannes Gutenberg’s work on movable type and the printing press.
D. encouraging and fostering the revival of interest in the arts and ideas of Greece and Rome.
54. All these nations fought on the same side during World War I except ______________ .
55. One factor that enabled Napoleon to become first consul of France, then emperor, was
A. his long absences from France while leading the troops in battle.
B. a long period of economic prosperity that followed the execution of the king.
C. the restoration to authority and dignity of the Catholic Church in France.
D. the lack of a coherent legislative assembly despite several attempts to create one.
56. Which best explains why communism, as it was practiced, was not satisfactory to the peoples of Eastern Europe?
A. It left them feeling constantly vulnerable to foreign invasion.
B. It refused them basic freedoms they demanded as a human right.
C. It was a corrupt system of government.
D. It was a barrier to economic progress.
57. Why did Louis XIV require that the hereditary nobles spend part of each year at Versailles?
A. to curtail their freedom and thus prevent possible conspiracies or attacks on the throne
B. to drive a wedge between them and the peasants on their estates
C. to have them on hand to counsel and advise him in foreign and domestic policy
D. to protect him in case of a popular uprising or revolution
58. What is the main reason the Anglican religion, as established in 1534, was so similar in practice to Catholicism?
A. because the Anglican church hierarchy did not want to give up any of their authority
B. because Anglicanism was established for political, not spiritual, reasons
C. because the people of England did not want major changes in the way they worshiped
D. because the pope pressured the archbishop of Canterbury not to make major changes to the worship service
59. ________________ declared war on Germany when Germany invaded Poland in 1939.
A. Britain and France
B. France and Italy
C. Italy and Austria
D. Austria and Britain
60. Sweden briefly achieved the status of a major European power during
A. the Renaissance.
B. the Industrial Revolution.
C. the Thirty Years’ War.
D. the Napoleonic era.
61. Which best describes Stalin’s attitude toward Soviet peasants?
A. They were an inferior race of people.
B. They were a means of providing grain for the industrial workers.
C. They were the Communist Party’s natural base of support.
D. They should overthrow the social order and take control.
62. __________________ was the fi rst modern European nation to establish a constitutional monarchy.
63. Which nation appeared to be upsetting or disturbing the peaceful balance of power in Europe in the years leading up to World War I?
64. The philosophes of the Enlightenment admired Britain because
A. it had a stable government and a prosperous economy.
B. it was a great world power despite its relatively small size.
C. it had a relatively free press and relative religious tolerance.
D. it was the birthplace of some of the greatest philosophes .
65. Which of the following is an important scholar and writer associated with the Humanist movement of the sixteenth century?
A. Niccolò Machiavelli
B. Desiderus Erasmus
C. Johannes Kepler
D. Denis Diderot
66. The history of Russia as a nation-state began during the era when the Russians managed to expel ______________ from their lands.
A. the Chinese
B. the Indians
C. the Tatars
D. the Arabs
67. _______________ is an important figure in history because he defied Soviet authority in post–World War II Czechoslovakia during the Prague Spring.
A. Alexander Dubcek
B. Mikhail Gorbachev
C. Imre Nagy
D. Lech Walesa
68. _______________ was the major battleground during the Thirty Years’ War.
C. The Holy Roman Empire
69. Why was Newton’s discovery and explanation of the principle of gravity important?
A. It proved that travel in space would be possible one day.
B. It disputed the findings of previous scientists and astronomers.
C. It showed that the workings of the universe were intelligible to ordinary people.
D. It demonstrated that the Earth and other planets moved around the sun.
70. What was the Polish government’s initial response to the rise of Solidarity?
A. to ban it legally
B. to ignore it
C. to start a civil war
D. to resign in the face of its widespread support
71. In the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, _______________ troops rose up against the British.
A. South African
72. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen contains important ideas from _______________
A. the Glorious Revolution.
B. the Renaissance.
C. the Enlightenment.
D. the Scientific Revolution.
73. One very basic reason Germany was bound to lose World War II was that
A. the German troops were greatly outnumbered.
B. the Germans were not loyal to their government.
C. the German generals were poor strategists.
D. the Germans had violated the Versailles Treaty.
74. The Iron Curtain was first lifted on the border between
A. Austria and Hungary.
B. East and West Germany.
C. East and West Berlin.
D. Germany and Austria.
75. One major factor that caused Europeans to question the omnipotence of the Catholic Church in the 1300s was
A. new developments in medical science.
B. the Church’s inability to combat the Black Plague.
C. the pope’s refusal to grant Henry VIII a divorce.
D. the publication of The Prince.
76. Lenin founded the Comintern with the goal of
A. forming alliances with European leaders.
B. spying on foreign governments.
C. achieving international peace.
D. spreading communism throughout Europe.
77. The attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev in 1991 was motivated by
A. economic and political concerns.
B. lack of popular support for his policies.
C. chaos in Eastern Europe.
D. the civil war in Yugoslavia.
78. The absolute monarchs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries consistently granted major privileges to ___________________ as a means of defusing possible disloyalty or opposition.
A. the military
B. the pope
C. the hereditary nobility
D. the wealthy merchant class
79. The original motive for sponsoring European voyages to other continents was _____________
A. to establish foreign military bases.
B. to expand the empire by setting up permanent European colonies.
C. to convert native populations to Christianity.
D. to establish profitable trade relations.
80. Which new thought process arose during the Scientific Revolution?
A. interpreting one’s own direct observations and data
B. studying and interpreting the great writings of the past
C. asking questions of educated philosophers and teachers
D. accepting what one was told by leaders of the Church
81. Between the reign of Edward VI and the Glorious Revolution, the position of the Anglican Church varied according to
A. the state of the English economy.
B. the religious preferences of the English monarch.
C. whether England was at peace or at war.
D. the political relations among England, Scotland, and Ireland.
82. The political concept of perestroika is best described as
A. an openness to political discourse from all social ranks.
B. a restructuring of government and society.
C. the universal right of an adult to vote.
D. the right of a head of state to choose the national religion.
83. One important reason the French Revolution succeeded in abolishing the monarchy was that
A. France had no formal political parties and no legislative assembly.
B. the king was unable to escape from Versailles.
C. the hereditary aristocracy did not want to give up any of its privileges.
D. the armed National Guard sided with the common people.
84. Conflict between King Charles I and the British Parliament erupted into open warfare over the issue of
A. the balance of power between the legislature and the throne.
B. religious disagreements between England and Ireland.
C. Parliament’s dislike of being ruled by a Protestant monarch.
D. Charles’s prospective marriage to a French Catholic princess.
85. Why did Peter the Great establish St. Petersburg as the new Russian capital city?
A. to establish and maintain new trade routes with Europe
B. to indicate that he saw Russia as a nation belonging to Western Europe
C. to command the attendance and service of the hereditary nobles
D. to protect the nation from invasion from the west
86. Russian peasants generally supported the Bolsheviks because the Bolsheviks promised them _____________
C. the right to vote.
87. ________________ became the core of a unified Italy in 1861.
B. The Papal States
D. The former Duchy of Florence
88. During the Reformation, Protestantism failed to establish itself fi rmly and securely in France because
A. the French were involved in a series of civil wars.
B. the granting of indulgences had not spread to France.
C. the monarchs were Catholics and supported the Catholic cause.
D. the French people were not interested in the teachings of Calvin or Luther.
89. The first soviets—workers’ councils—in Russia were established in the wake of
A. the Revolution of 1905.
B. the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.
C. the Great War.
D. World War II.
90. One reason non-Russians joined the White forces during the Russian civil war of 1918 was
A. to reestablish a legitimate Russian government.
B. to recover territory Russia had ceded to Germany.
C. to take revenge on the Russians for abandoning World War I.
D. to establish cordial relations with the Russian leaders.
91. In the years leading to the First World War, Britain’s primary concern was ________________
A. the buildup of the German navy.
B. the alliance between France and Russia.
C. the ascension to the German throne of Wilhelm II.
D. the establishment of independent states in the Balkans.
92. The British Parliament deposed King James II because he was __________________
93. What false assumption led Hitler to underestimate the Soviets as opponents?
A. that the country was not that large
B. that they had a powerful navy
C. that they were not really loyal to Stalin
D. that they were racially inferior to the Germans
94. Which nineteenth-century political philosophy is furthest to the political left?
95. What was the most important reason for the Europeans’ success in establishing dominance over the native populations in the Americas?
A. They had deadlier weapons.
B. There were more of them.
C. They were physically healthier and stronger.
D. They were more familiar with the local geography.
96. The kingdom of ___________________ eventually became the core of a united German nation.
97. ________________ was created at the end of the Napoleonic Wars to maintain a peaceful balance of power in Europe.
A. The League of Nations
B. The European Union
C. The Quadruple Alliance
D. The United Nations
98. Which influential group, class, or institution fiercely opposed Italian unification in the nineteenth century?
A. the Italian monarch and the royalists
B. the pope and the Catholic Church
C. the political conservatives and the wealthy
D. the republicans and intellectuals
99. King James I of England is a notable figure in history because he
A. closed all the theaters in London due to his strict religious beliefs.
B. was the last English monarch to reign before the monarchy was abolished.
C. passed a law requiring all gentlemen to shave their beards.
D. commissioned a brilliant new English translation of the Bible.
100. What was Frederick the Great’s main reason for making the Prussian army the strongest and most impressive fighting force in Europe?
A. to gain the approval of his father, King Frederick William I
B. to take military revenge on the nations that had defeated the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years’ War
C. to discourage other nations from invading Prussia despite its geographically vulnerable position
D. to invade and conquer Austria and make it part of a united German state
1. B 2. D 3. D 4. B 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. B 9. D 10. B 11. A 12. D 13. C 14. A 15. B 16. A 17. B 18. B 19. C 20. A 21. B 22. B 23. D 24. A 25. B 26. B 27. A 28. A 29. A 30. C 31. D 32. C 33. D 34. B 35. C 36. B 37. A 38. D 39. B 40. C 41. C 42. D 43. C 44. A 45. C 46. A 47. A 48. B 49. C 50. C 51. B 52. C 53. D 54. C 55. D 56. B 57. A 58. B 59. A 60. C 61. B 62. B 63. B 64. C 65. B 66. C 67. A 68. C 69. C 70. A 71. C 72. C 73. A 74. A 75. B 76. D 77. A 78. C 79. D 80. A 81. B 82. B 83. D 84. A 85. B 86. A 87. C 88. C 89. A 90. A 91. A 92. C 93. D 94. B 95. A 96. D 97. C 98. B 99. D 100. C
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