Review the following concepts if needed:

- Fuzzy Truths and The Probability Fallacy Help
- Probability Definitions Help
- Properties of Outcomes Help
- Combinations and Permutations Help

**Probability Practice Test**

A good score is eight correct. Answers are at the end of the section.

1 . Empirical probability is based on

(a) observation or experimentation

(b) theoretical models only

(c) continuous outcomes

(d) standard deviations

2 . What is the number of possible combinations of 7 objects taken 3 at a time?

(a) 10

(b) 21

(c) 35

(d) 210

3 . What is the number of possible permutations of 7 objects taken 3 at a time?

(a) 10

(b) 21

(c) 35

(d) 210

4 . The difference between permutations and combinations lies in the fact that

(a) permutations take order into account, but combinations do not

(b) combinations take order into account, but permutations do not

(c) combinations involve only continuous variables, but permutations involve only discrete variables

(d) permutations involve only continuous variables, but combinations involve only discrete variables

5 . The result of an event is called

(a) an experiment

(b) a trial

(c) an outcome

(d) a variable

6 . How many times as large is 1,000,000 factorial, compared with 999,999 factorial?

(a) 1,000,000 times as large.

(b) 999,999 times as large.

(c) A huge number that requires either a computer or else many human-hours to calculate.

(d) There is not enough information given here to get any idea.

7 . The set of all possible outcomes during the course of an experiment is called

(a) a dependent variable

(b) a random variable

(c) a discrete variable

(d) a sample space

8 . What is the mathematical probability that a coin, tossed 10 times in a row, will come up “tails” on all 10 tosses?

(a) 1/10

(b) 1/64

(c) 1/1024

(d) 1/2048

9 . Two outcomes are mutually exclusive if and only if

(a) they are nondisjoint

(b) they have no elements in common

(c) they have at least one element in common

(d) they have identical sets of outcomes

10 . The probability, expressed as a percentage, of a particular occurrence can never be

(a) less than 100

(b) less than 0

(c) greater than 1

(d) anything but a whole number

**Answers**

- a
- c
- d
- a
- c
- a
- d
- c
- b
- b

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