Experiment 22: Synthesis and Properties of an Organic Compound for AP Chemistry
For a quick review on stoichiometry, refer to the following concepts:
- Alkanes for AP Chemistry
- Structural Isomerism for AP Chemistry
- Common Functional Groups and Macromolecules for AP Chemistry
Any of a number of chemical reactions can be used to synthesize an organic compound. After synthesis, the compound is purified and tested. (See the chapter on Organic Chemistry.)
- analytical balance
- capillary tubes
- drying oven
- Erlenmeyer flask
- evaporating dish
- flasks support stand
- bath clamp
Quantities of reactants are measured by using either mass or volume measurements. In some cases, the mass of the product is measured.
When the mass of the product (actual yield) is measured, normally a percent yield is required. The mass of the limiting reagent is converted, through moles, to the theoretical yield of product. The percent yield is calculated by dividing the actual yield by the theoretical yield, then multiplying the resulting value by 100%.
Many different compounds could be synthesized.
Common Mistakes to Avoid
- You measure initial and final values, but calculate the change.
- You use an analytical balance to weigh the mass (grams), but not the moles.
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