Experiment 7: Acid–Base Titration for AP Chemistry
For a quick review on stoichiometry, reactions, and periodicity, refer to the following concepts:
- Moles, Molar Mass, and Molarity for AP Chemistry
- Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas for AP Chemistry
- Reaction Stoichiometry for AP Chemistry
- Limiting Reactants for AP Chemistry
- Percent Yield for AP Chemistry
- General Aspects of Chemical Reactions and Equations for AP Chemistry
- General Properties of Aqueous Solutions for AP Chemistry
- Precipitation Reactions for AP Chemistry
- Oxidation–Reduction Reactions for AP Chemistry
- Coordination Compounds for AP Chemistry
- Acid–Base Reactions for AP Chemistry
The concentration of an acid or a base may be determined by titrating a solution of an unknown concentration with a solution of a known concentration. (See the chapter on Reactions and Periodicity and the chapter on Stoichiometry.)
- analytical balance
- drying oven
- Erlenmeyer flask
- pH meter
- support stand
- wash bottle
- the volume of the solution of acid or base using a pipet
- the initial reading of the buret
- intermediate readings from the buret
- the final reading of the buret
- the pH of the solution at various times during the reaction
The volume added is calculated by taking the difference between measurement 2 and either measurement 3 or 4.
A plot of pH versus the volume added is made. This graph or the difference between measurements 2 and 3 gives the volume of titrant.
The volume of titrant is converted to liters.
The pipeted volume is converted to moles by multiplying the liters of solution by its molarity. The moles of titrant are determined using the mole ratio in the balanced chemical equation for the acid–base reaction. The molarity of the solution is calculated by dividing the moles of titrant by the liters of titrant used.
It does not matter whether an acid is titrated by a base or vice versa.
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