Introduction to Polygons
There is no limit to the number of sides a polygon can have. In order to qualify as a plane polygon, all of the vertices (points where the sides come together) must lie in the same plane, and no two sides are allowed to cross over each other. No two vertices can coincide. No three vertices can lie on a common line (otherwise we might get confused as to whether a line segment represents one side or two). And finally, the sides must all be straight line segments having finite length. They can’t be curved, and they can’t go off into infinity.
As you can guess, plane polygons get increasingly complicated as the number of sides increases. Let’s consider a few special cases.
The Regular Pentagon
Figure 41 shows a fivesided polygon, all of whose sides have the same length, and all of whose interior angles have the same measure. This is called a regular pentagon . It is called convex because its exterior never bends inward. Another way of saying this is that all of the interior angles measure less than 180° ( π rad).
The Regular Hexagon
A convex polygon with six sides, all of which are equally long, is called a regular hexagon (Fig. 42). This type of polygon is common in nature. If there are many of them and they are all the same size, they can be placed neatly together without any gaps. (Do you remember those old barbershops where the floors were made of little hexagonal tiles that fit up against each other?) This makes the regular hexagon a special sort of figure, along with the equilateral triangle and the square. Certain crystalline solids form regular hexagonal shapes when they fracture. Snowflakes have components with this shape.
The Regular Octagon
Figure 43 shows a regular octagon . This is a convex polygon with eight sides, all equally long. As is the case with the regular hexagon, large numbers of these figures can be fit neatly together. So it is not surprising that nature has seen fit to take advantage of this, building octagonal crystals.
Regular Polygons In General
For every whole number n greater than or equal to 3, it is possible to have a regular polygon with n sides. So far we’ve seen the equilateral triangle ( n = 3), the square ( n = 4), the regular pentagon ( n = 5), the regular hexagon ( n = 6), and the regular octagon ( n = 8). There can exist a regular polygon with 1000 sides (this might be called a “regular kilogon”), 1,000,000 sides (a “regular megagon”), or 1,000,000,000 sides (a “regular gigagon”). These last three would look pretty much like circles to the casual observer.
General, Manysided Polygons
Once the restrictions are removed concerning the relationship among the sides of a polygon having four sides or more, the potential for variety increases without limit. Sides can have all different lengths, and the measure of each interior angle can range anywhere from 0° (0 rad) to 360° (2 π rad), noninclusive.
Figure 44 shows some examples of general, manysided polygons. The object at the top left is a nonconvex octagon whose sides happen to all have the same length. The interior angles, however, differ in measure. The other two objects are irregular and nonconvex. All three share the essential characteristics of a plane polygon:
 The vertices all lie in a single plane
 No two sides cross
 No two vertices coincide
 No three vertices lie on a single straight line
 All the sides are line segments of finite length

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