Hemispheric Exchange Review Questions for AP World History
By Peggy J. Martin — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- European explorations
- were dependent on European technological innovation.
- promoted harmony among the nations of Europe.
- sought to break established trade monopolies.
- concentrated on the Americas.
- interfered with the growth of capitalism.
- The Columbian Exchange
- improved the nutrition of American indigenous peoples.
- did not involve Africa.
- drew the world's oceans into an active trade network.
- produced both positive and adverse effects on world population.
- did not affect East Asia.
- The English and French engaged in rivalries over territory in
- North America.
- East Africa.
- western Africa.
- The region with the greatest number of colonial and commercial competitors was
- the western coast of Africa.
- the Caribbean islands.
- the Philippines.
- The Netherlands established commercial or colonial interests in all of the following areas EXCEPT
- southern Africa.
- South America.
- western Africa.
- North America.
- Which of the following regions sustained trade patterns that were the most different from the others before the eighteenth century?
- Mughal India.
- Which crop arrived in the Americas as part of the Columbian Exchange and later became a key product of the Americas?
- Sweet potatoes.
- As a result of hemispheric trade between 1450 and 1750,
- the entire globe was linked by numerous active trade routes.
- European governments lost influence to the power of the great trading companies.
- the work of African artisans found new markets.
- the Ottoman Empire strengthened its hold on European territory.
- European wealth and commercial dominance increased.
Answers and Explanations
- C—The Portuguese more than other nations attempted to break the trade monopolies of the Muslims and Italian merchants in the Indian Ocean and succeeded with the voyage of Da Gama. The English also sought a northwest passage to the East in order to break up trade monopolies. European technology depended on inventions from the Muslim and Chinese worlds (A). Exploration promoted rivalry rather than harmony among the nations of Europe, as in the case of competition between England and Spain that led to the defeat of the Spanish Armada (B). Europeans concentrated on African and Indian Ocean trade as well as trade with the Americas (D). Trade strengthened capitalism (E).
- D—While the influx of added nutrients tended to increase populations of the Eastern Hemisphere, American indigenous populations were devastated by disease. American natives were not widely interested in the food crops of Europeans (A). Africa benefited from the introduction of manioc from the Americas (B), whereas sweet potatoes enriched the diets of the Chinese (E). The Columbian Exchange centered on trade across the Atlantic Ocean (C).
- C—Rivalries between France and England were intense in North America. The French were not involved in Indonesian trade (A), or in trade with China (B) or East Africa (D). Neither nation established trade in western Africa during this time period (E).
- B—Indonesian trade involved Muslims, Chinese, Dutch, Portuguese, East African, Southeast Asian, and English traders. The western coast of Africa was primarily the domain of Portugal (A). The Caribbean islands were opened up to Portuguese, English, and French trade (C). The Philippines were controlled by Spain (D), and Japan limited European trade with the Portuguese, then allowed only trade only with the Dutch and Chinese (E).
- C—The Portuguese, not the Dutch, established trade contacts in western Africa. The Dutch established Cape Colony in southern Africa as a way station (A) and briefly carried on trade in Brazil (B). The Dutch had a colony in North America for a few years (D) and established trade relations with Tokugawa Japan (E).
- E—Russian trade was local and regional during this time period. Japan (A) and China (C) both engaged in regional trade and in limited long-distance trade. Indonesian trade actively involved a number of European and eastern nations (B), whereas Mughal India encouraged long-distance trade but was too preoccupied with internal expansion to become fully involved in commercial interests (D).
- B—Sugar was transferred from the Middle East to the Mediterranean, then to Brazil and the Caribbean islands, where it became a major export crop to the Eastern Hemisphere. Tobacco (A), sweet potatoes (C), and manioc (E) were exchanged from the Western Hemisphere, whereas bananas (D) were an exchange that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere.
- E—European profits and global dominance increased as a result of its interests in exploration, trade, and colonization. Many regions such as Russia, Japan, China, Mughal India, parts of Africa, and the Ottoman Empire were outside global trade networks (A). The great trading companies were controlled by their respective governments (B). African trade involved primarily slaves, with little global interest in African art (C). The Ottoman Empire, uninterested in technological advances, continued its decline (D).
From 5 Steps to a 5 AP World History. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
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