History and Approaches to Psychology Rapid Review for AP Psychology
A more in-depth study guide for this review can be found at:
- Psychology—the science of behavior and mental processes
- Monism—seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
- Dualism—seeing mind and body as two different things that interact
- Nature-Nurture Controversy—the extent to which behavior results from heredity or experience
- School of Structuralism—early psychological perspective that emphasized units of consciousness and identification of elements of thought using introspection Wilhelm Wundt—founder of scientific psychology in Leipzig, Germany; studied consciousness using introspection
- School of Functionalism—early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment.
- Behavioral approach—psychological perspective concerned with behavioral reactions to stimuli; learning as a result of experience.
- Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic approach—psychological perspective concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives, and defenses influence behavior.
- Humanistic approach—psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one's potential.
- Biological approach—psychological perspective concerned with physiological and biochemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes.
- Cognitive approach—psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; think/reason; and use language.
- Evolutionary approach—psychological perspective concerned with how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival and spread of our ancestors' genes; evolutionary psychologists look at universal behaviors shared by all people.
- Sociocultural approach—psychological perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior.
- Eclectic—use of techniques and ideas from a variety of approaches.
- Clinical psychologists evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
- Counseling psychologists help people adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle.
- Developmental psychologists study psychological development throughout the lifespan.
- Educational psychologists focus on how effective teaching and learning take place.
- Engineering psychologists and human factors psychologists do research on how people function best with machines.
- Experimental psychologists do research to add new knowledge to the field.
- Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to legal issues.
- Health psychologists concentrate on biological, psychological, and social factors involved in health and illness.
- Industrial/Organizational psychologists aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace.
- Neuropsychologists explore the relationships between brain/nervous systems and behavior. Neuropsychologists are also called biological psychologists or biopsychologists, behavioral geneticists, physiological psychologists, and behavioral neuroscientists.
- Personality psychologists focus on traits, attitudes, and goals of the individual.
- Psychometricians (a.k.a. psychometric or measurement psychologists) focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data.
- Rehabilitation psychologists help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and disabilities resulting from stroke or accidents adapt to their situations.
- School psychologists assess and counsel students, consult with educators and parents, and perform behavioral intervention when necessary.
- Social psychologists focus on how a person's mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people.
- Sports psychologists help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, increase motivation, and deal with anxiety and fear of failure.
Plato and Descartes believed behavior is inborn (nature).
Aristotle, Locke, Watson, Skinner believed behavior results from experience (nurture).
G. Stanley Hall—brought introspection to his lab at Johns Hopkins University in the U.S.; first president of the American Psychological Association.
Edward Titchener—studied elements of consciousness at his Cornell University lab.
Margaret Floy Washburn—first woman to complete her Ph.D. in psychology.
William James—wrote Principles of Psychology.
Mary Whiton Calkins—first woman president of the American Psychological Association.
Ivan Pavlov—known for classical conditioning of dogs.
John Watson—known for experiments in classical aversive conditioning.
B. F. Skinner—known for experiments in operant conditioning.
Sigmund Freud—"Father of psychoanalysis."
Jung, Adler, Horney, Kohut—psychodynamic psychologists.
Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow—humanistic psychologists.
Jean Piaget—studied cognitive development in children.
Psychologists specialize in different domains:
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