The Second Industrial Revolution Review Questions for AP European History
By Jeffrey Brautigam, Ph.D. — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- Which of the following was NOT an effect of the division of labor?
- It increased the supply of labor available to manufacturers.
- It raised wages for manufacturing workers.
- It increased the volume that manufacturers could produce.
- It allowed manufacturers to sell their products more cheaply.
- It allowed manufacturers to increase their profits.
- The invention of new forms of power such as steam and electricity
- led to the creation of the factory system
- facilitated the invention of the automobile
- decreased demand for coal
- allowed manufacturers to relocate their mills away from water sources
- doomed the shipping industry
- In general, the Second Industrial Revolution in Europe
- began on the Continent and spread in all directions
- took place in Great Britain
- took place more slowly in Eastern Europe
- was stimulated by government investment in Western Europe
- took place later but more rapidly in Eastern Europe
- The railway boom of the 1830s and 1840s
- increased demand for steel but decreased demand for coal
- did not affect the demand for steel
- increased demand for both steel and coal
- increased demand for coal but decreased demand for steel
- did not affect the demand for coal
- Which of the following was an advantage enjoyed by Great Britain that helps to explain why the Second Industrial Revolution originated there?
- an extensive river system
- the lack of internal trade tariffs
- a well-developed commercial economy
- natural resources
- all of the above
- In Russia
- industrialization occurred rapidly under the direction of the government
- industrialization was a gradual process
- textile production was crucial to the industrialization process
- railway construction was deemed unnecessary for industrialization
- industrialization occurred early and rapidly due to trade with the East
- One of the ways in which the Second Industrial Revolution affected the social structure of Europe was to produce
- a more even distribution of wealth
- a lower middle class of managers and clerks
- poor people
- a merchant class
- gender equity
- As a result of the Second Industrial Revolution, the majority of skilled artisans and craftsmen
- became managers in factories
- lost their livelihoods
- moved to towns and cities
- were women
Answers and Explanations
- B. The division of labor increased the supply of labor available, thereby causing wages for manufacturing workers to fall, not increase. Choice A is incorrect because the division of labor did increase the supply of labor available to manufacturers by making all jobs unskilled jobs. Choice C is incorrect because the division of labor increased volume by speeding up the manufacturing process. Choices D and E are incorrect because the combination of increased productivity and cheaper labor allowed manufacturers to sell their products more cheaply and still increase their profits through increased volume.
- D. The shift to steam and electrical power and away from hydropower allowed manufacturers to move away from water sources and relocate in more convenient locations. Choice A is incorrect because the factory system is a way of organizing labor; it is not dependent on a particular source of power. Choice B is incorrect because the invention of the automobile was facilitated by the invention of the internal combustion engine, not steam and electricity. Choice C is incorrect because both steam engines and electrical generators relied on coal for fuel, therefore increasing demand for it. Choice E is incorrect because, although the invention of the steam locomotive led to a railway boom, the application of it to ships allowed the shipping industry to prosper as well.
- E. The Second Industrial Revolution originated in Britain and took place later but more rapidly in Eastern Europe, which was able to copy and purchase key industrial innovations. Choice A is incorrect because the Second Industrial Revolution originated in Great Britain and spread eastward across Europe, not in all directions. Choice B is incorrect because the Second Industrial Revolution was not unique to nor contained in Britain. Choice C is incorrect because the Second Industrial Revolution occurred later but more rapidly in Eastern Europe. Choice D is incorrect because there was more government investment involved in Eastern Europe where governments feared falling economically and technologically behind their Western rivals.
- C. The railway boom increased demand for steel because steel was required for the manufacture of railway engines, cars, and rails; it also increased demand for coal because coal was the fuel for steam locomotives. Choices A and D are incorrect because the railway boom increased demand for both steel and coal. Choice B is incorrect because the railway boom did affect the demand for steel: It increased demand. Similarly, choice E is incorrect because the railway boom did affect the demand for coal: It also increased demand.
- E. All of the choices are correct. Britain's extensive river system (choice A) allowed it to move raw materials and manufactured goods with relative ease. The lack of internal trade tariffs (choice B) allowed manufacturers to buy and transport materials without eating into their profit. Britain's well-developed commercial economy (choice C) provided both a merchant class and capital for investment. Finally, Britain's rich deposits of iron and coal (choice D: Britain's natural resources) provided the necessary raw materials.
- A. Industrialization occurred rapidly in Russia under the direction of finance minister Serge Witte. Choice B is incorrect because Russia industrialized later than its European rivals but very rapidly, with most of the process taking place between 1892 and 1904. Choice C is incorrect because Russian industrialization was driven by its railway construction and steel production, not by its textile industry. Choice D is incorrect because the construction of the trans-Siberian railway was very necessary—indeed, a crucial part of Russian industrialization. Choice E is incorrect because again, Russia did not industrialize early; it industrialized later than its European counterparts.
- B. The factory system that was characteristic of the Second Industrial Revolution required and produced a class of managers and clerks whose pay and status located them precariously at the lower end of the middle class. Choice A is incorrect because the Second Industrial Revolution did nothing to distribute wealth more evenly throughout the population; instead, it made a relatively small number of industrialists and entrepreneurs fabulously wealthy and made some workers better off than before. Choice C is incorrect because the poor had existed before the Second Industrial Revolution. Similarly, choice D is incorrect because a merchant class existed in Europe prior to the Second Industrial Revolution. Choice E is incorrect because, although many women initially found work in the factories of the Second Industrial Revolution, they were not paid equally and were the first to be let go when increasing mechanization decreased the demand for labor.
- C. Because factory-produced goods could be made in greater quantity and sold more cheaply, most skilled artisans and craftsmen were unable to compete and lost their livelihoods. Choice A is incorrect because the skilled artisans and craftsmen did not prosper; instead, they faced either unemployment or factory work at wages much lower than the profits they had made in their shops. Choice B is incorrect because a factory manager was a new breed whose job was to keep the factory running at peak efficiency and whose skills were unrelated to those of the old artisans and craftsmen. Choice D is incorrect because, unlike their agricultural counterparts, artisans and craftsmen had always located themselves in towns and cities. Choice E is incorrect because neither men nor women were being drawn into these professions during the Second Industrial Revolution.
From 5 Steps to a 5 AP European History. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
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